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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2014| January-March  | Volume 26 | Issue 1  
    Online since September 26, 2014

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Orofacial manifestations of congenital hypothyroidism: Clinicoradiological case report
Gundareddy N Suma, Manisha Lakhanpal, Manu Dhillon, Siddharth Srivastava
January-March 2014, 26(1):111-114
Thyroid disorders have a widespread effect on the ossification of cartilage, growth of teeth, facial contour, and overall body proportions. Both growth hormones and thyroid hormones show permissive action on growth stimulation. Deregulation in thyroid homeostasis can result in various orofacial and skeletal abnormalities. This report describes a case of congenital hypothyroidism in a 20-year-old female patient, presenting with a short stature, hypotonia, alopecia, euryprosopic face with puffiness, multiple retained deciduous teeth, delayed fusion of the intracranial sutures, and epiphysis and diaphysis of the long bones. Based on various biochemical and radiographic investigations, diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism was established. Craniometry and hand-wrist radiographic evaluation of the growth pattern further aided in strengthening the diagnosis.
  1 2,537 327
Assessment of age based on the pulp cavity width of the maxillary central incisors
Uday Ginjupally, Ramaswamy Pachigolla, Sudhakar Sankaran, Smitha Balla, Sreenivasulu Pattipati, Sai Kiran Chennoju
January-March 2014, 26(1):46-49
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the age of the patients belonging to the age group of 15 - 55 years, attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, St. Joseph Dental College and Hospital, Eluru, based on the radiographic evaluation of the pulp cavity width of the maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 120 subjects. Intraoral periapical radiographs of the maxillary central incisors were taken for all subjects, using the conventional paralleling angle technique and the pulp cavity width was measured at the cervical and middle third using a digital vernier caliper. The data obtained was subjected to correlation and regression analysis. Results: A negative linear relationship was obtained between the age and pulp cavity width (cervical third, r = -0.459 and middle third, r = -0.704). Cubic regression analysis was done and the regression formulae were obtained. A mean difference of 0.1 years was obtained between the estimated age and real age, indicating the reliability of the derived formula. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the width of the pulp cavity of maxillary central incisors are reliable for estimation of age.
  1 1,475 342
Keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the right mandibular condyle: A rare case
Kamala Rawson, Basavaraj N Kallalli, Swaroop Telkar, Mohan Raju Penumatcha
January-March 2014, 26(1):103-106
Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) was first described by Hans Philipsen in 1956. The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated OKC as a Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor (KCOT). KCOT is defined as 'a benign uni- or multicystic, intraosseous tumor of odontogenic origin, with a characteristic lining of parakeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, with a potential for aggressive, infiltrative behavior'. Radiographically, most OKCs are unilocular, presenting a well-defined peripheral rim and a central cavity having satellite cysts. It is characterized by a thin fibrous capsule and a lining of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, which is typically corrugated, usually about 6 to 10 cells in thickness, and generally without rete pegs. The present case report describes an unusual case of KCOT with minimal clinical presentation indicative of a tumor highlighting the potential difficulties in determining the diagnosis.
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Actinic cheilitis with a familial pattern: An unusual case
Surekha Murthi, Shilpa Ravishankar Thayi, Usha Konidala, Vani Chappidi
January-March 2014, 26(1):107-110
Actinic cheilitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the lip, affecting the lower lip mainly, caused by cumulative long-term effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight. It is a premalignant condition with a malignancy potential of 6-10%. It is reported that it almost exclusively occurs in fair-skinned people and those who work outdoors. However, it has recently been reported that actinic cheilitis is not exclusive to fair-skinned people. It is most common in middle-aged or older male patients. Diagnosis of actinic cheilitis is mainly based on demographical, clinical, and histopathological findings. Factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, dietary habits, and genetic predisposition are also associated with lip cancer. Here, we present a case of actinic cheilitis in two siblings and in their mother, showing a familial pattern. An incisional biopsy of the lower lip in the mother showed severe dysplastic changes indicating transformation to squamous cell carcinoma.
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Central neurofibroma: A rare pathology at a rare site
Ajas A Gogri, Sonali G Kadam, Hemant R Umarji, Pravin R Shinde
January-March 2014, 26(1):77-81
Neurofibroma is a tumor of nerve tissue origin. It is an uncommon benign tumor of the oral cavity. It generally appears as a part of syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, i.e., Von Recklinghausen's disease of skin. Oral neurofibroma as a solitary lesion is very uncommon. Few sporadic cases have been reported on tongue and submandibular gland. On rare occasions, the tumor can arise centrally within bone. This article presents a case of variation in the observed characteristics of neurofibroma being present centrally within maxillary alveolus and with no relation to neurofibromatosis. A discussion of its clinical, radiological, and histological features and a review of the same are included.
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Localized scleroderma: A rare clinical entity
Ranjana Garg, Swati Dhingra, Ravneet Arora
January-March 2014, 26(1):115-118
Localized Scleroderma (LS), which is also referred to as morphea, is an inflammatory disease that leads to diffuse or localized fibrotic and atrophic skin hardening. It is an uncommon, autoimmune, multisystem connective tissue disease that is characterized by excessive collagen deposition, widespread microvascular abnormalities, widespread skin fibrosis, and proliferative obstructive vasculopathy, which are the hallmark pathological features. Here we present a case of localized scleroderma in a middle-aged female patient.
  - 2,148 231
Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: A rare presentation
Neha Bhasin, Sreedevi , Sanyog Pathak, Vinuth Dhundanahalli Puttalingaiah
January-March 2014, 26(1):119-123
Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst (OOC) is a developmental cyst of odontogenic origin and was initially defined as the uncommon orthokeratinized variant of the Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC), until the World Health Organization's (WHO's) classification in 2005, where it was separated from the Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor (KCOT). It is a relatively uncommon developmental cyst comprising of only 0.4% of all odontogenic cysts. It is rather mystifying that its radiographic features are similar to the dentigerous cyst and histological characteristics are similar to the odontogenic keratocyst; and it has inconsistent cytokeratin expression profiles overlapping with both the dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst as well as with the epidermis. It has a predilection for the posterior mandibular region. This is a report of a rare case of OOC in an unusual maxillary anterior region, with emphasis on its biological characteristics.
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Kissing mandibular canines: Serendipity at its best
Sonali Sharma, Vijay Raghavan, Saloni Kumari
January-March 2014, 26(1):82-84
Transmigration of teeth is a relatively less well known phenomenon. Its etiology is not so well understood. We present a case of bilateral transmigration of mandibular canines with a type 5 classification pattern (Muparappu) in a 21 year old male patient with emphasis on its etiology and complications accompanying its management.
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Gorlin Goltz syndrome: A clinicopathological case report
Shobha C Bijjaragi, Ashwinirani Suragimath, Varsha Ajit Sangle, Veerendra S Patil
January-March 2014, 26(1):85-88
The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an infrequent multisystemic disease, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness, characterized by multiple basal cell nevi or carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, palmar and / or plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and is occasionally associated with internal malignancies. It is fundamental to know the major and minor criteria for the diagnosis and early preventive treatment of this syndrome. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old male with major and minor features of the Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, such as, strabismus, barrel-shaped chest, with drooping shoulders and mild kyphosis, polydactyly, hypertelorism, multiple basal cell carcinomas, calcification of the falx cerebri, C5-C7 bifida spine, and fusion of T1 and T2.
  - 1,635 227
Kuttner tumor involving minor salivary glands: A very rare case report
Vinay Kumar Reddy Kundoor, Moni Thakur, Venkateswara Rao Guttikonda, Ramesh Thummala
January-March 2014, 26(1):89-91
Kuttner tumor, also known as chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, was first described by Dr. H. Kuttner in 1896. It is an uncommon, chronic, benign tumor-like lesion predominantly involving the submandibular glands of middle-aged individuals, and presents as a firm, painful swelling. Histologically, it is characterized by progressive periductal sclerosis, acinar atrophy, and gland infiltration by lymphocytes. A case of Kuttner tumor involving the minor salivary glands is reported.
  - 1,858 209
Trigemino-oculomotor synkinesis: Report of a rare case
Manjiri Joshi, Mansi Tailor, Balaji Ghugare
January-March 2014, 26(1):92-94
Trigeminal-oculomotor synkinesis also known as the Marcus Gunn jaw winking phenomenon was first described by the ophthalmologist, Marcus Gunn, in 1883. It is one of the common congenital oculofacial synkinesis, and accounts for approximately 5% of all congenital ptosis. It is characterized by the involuntary winking of eyes during jaw movement, due to an aberrant connection between the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve and one of the divisions of the occulomotor nerve. Here we report an unusual case of the Marcus Gunn jaw winking phenomenon, which was diagnosed accidentally.
  - 1,509 151
Submandibular gland swelling: A diagnostic dilemma
Tarun Kumar, Gagan Puri, Aravinda Konidena, Deepa Patil
January-March 2014, 26(1):95-98
Submandibular swellings pose a diagnostic challenge to oral physicians, as many disease entities are involved in the differential diagnosis. Benign salivary gland tumors are one of them. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign salivary gland tumor, which most commonly involves the parotid gland. Involvement of the submandibular gland is a rarity. This case report presents a rare case of a 60-year-old female patient with a unilateral submandibular swelling, diagnosed as a pleomorphic adenoma.
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Primary Sjögren's syndrome without ocular involvement: A rare case report
Tushar Phulambrikar, Priya Pande, Siddharth Singh, Shali Magar
January-March 2014, 26(1):99-102
Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder, characterized by the lymphocytic infiltration of lacrimal and salivary glands, giving rise to dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) and dry mouth (xerostomia). Primary Sjögren's Syndrome commonly presents only with sicca manifestations; whereas, secondary Sjögren's syndrome occurs in connection with other autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Primary Sjögren's syndrome without ocular manifestation is rarely reported in the literature. Here we report a case of a 45-year-old female, who presented to us with complaints of dryness of mouth and dysphagia, without any ocular and systemic manifestations. On further evaluation she was diagnosed as a case of Primary Sjögren's syndrome. With this case report, we intend to emphasize the importance of an early diagnosis of this disorder, along with a brief review of various diagnostic criteria.
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From the desk of the Editor-in-Chief
Sri Krishna Koppula
January-March 2014, 26(1):1-1
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January-March 2014, 26(1):124-125
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Assessment of bone-fill following regenerative periodontal therapy by image subtraction using commercially available software
Pavan Kumar Yellarthi, Viswa Chandra Rampalli, Naveen Anumala, Rama Raju Devaraju
January-March 2014, 26(1):13-18
Context: There are few applicable methods and scant literature on using non-specific image analysis software to assess and quantify post-periodontal surgery bone-fill. Aims: The present study describes the method of digital subtraction radiography (DSR) and morphometric area analysis (MA) in assessing bone-fill following regenerative periodontal therapy by using two image processing tools. Settings and Design: For the bone-fill assessment, radiographs of 78 angular bone defects from 30 subjects who underwent periodontal flap surgery with hydroxyapatite bone graft placement were utilized. Materials and Methods: The initial radiographic image obtained at baseline was subtracted from the radiographic images taken at 12/24 weeks by using the commercially available image processing software. After digital subtraction, the digitized and excluded interdental bone was transferred to open source software for area calculation. Bone-fill calculated by using DSR and MA was compared to the bone-fill values obtained by using the 1 mm 2 counting grid placed over the digital sensor. Statistical Analysis: Intragroup comparison of bone-fill between various groups was performed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparisons using Bonferroni correction. One-way ANOVA followed by the post hoc test was used for intragroup and intergroup comparison. Results: DSR and MA showed higher mean bone-fill levels over radiographic grid. Conclusion: Considering that the software aims to reduce the inaccuracy behind manual assessment of bone-fill, the overestimation of bone-fill as compared to a grid may be attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the method.
  - 2,584 436
Psychiatric morbidity in oral lichen planus: A preliminary study
Abhishek Ranjan Pati, Mubeen Khan, Vijayalakshmi Konaajji Ramachandra, Rajat Panigrahi, Soumik Kabasi, Swati Saraswata Acharya
January-March 2014, 26(1):19-23
Objective: To study the clinical types and association of psychological factors in patients with Oral Lichen Planus (OLP). Materials and Methods: An analytical age- and sex-matched study involved 30 patients with oral lichen planus (group 1) and 30 control subjects (group 2). We applied the following psychometric tests to both groups: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: The patients with OLP were found to exhibit statistically significant higher anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction with the tests that were used (GHQ 24 and HADS) than the control group (P > 0.05). The study group likewise exhibited greater depression and somatic symptoms. The mean total of the GHQ and HAD scores were found to be higher in the study group than in the controls (P > 0.05). Among the various types of OLP, patients with the erosive type had higher mean scores for anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and depression. Conclusion: In most patients psychiatric morbidity was strongly associated with OLP, which could support its role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. The higher scores of the General Health Questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale gave an insight into the hypothesis that psychological factors are associated with the causation of OLP.
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Correlation of radiotherapy with serum total and lipid-bound sialic acid in OSCC patients
Saurabh Srivastava, Ramhari Shankarrao Sathawane, Rajendra Nanalal Mody
January-March 2014, 26(1):2-7
Context: Increased quantities of glycoconjugates such as Total Sialic Acid (TSA) and Lipid-bound Sialic Acid (LSA) have been detected in the plasma and serum of patients with various malignancies, indicating their usefulness in diagnosis or monitoring of the treatment modality. Aims: (1) To estimate and compare the serum TSA and LSA levels in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) patients before and after radiotherapy, as also in healthy individuals. (2) To determine the correlation, if any, between Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) staging and levels of TSA and LSA. (3) To determine the use of serum TSA and LSA as biomarkers of OSCC. Settings and Design: The study was designed as a case-control study and was undertaken in a dental college and cancer hospital. Materials and Methods: It was planned to estimate the serum TSA and LSA levels of 20 healthy individuals and of 20 OSCC patients, spectrophotometrically; before starting and one month after completion of radiotherapy. Statistical Analysis: The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 10.0) was used. Results: The mean serum TSA and LSA levels in OSCC patients decreased significantly after radiotherapy; however, they were still higher than the levels in the controls. In untreated OSCC patients, a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the TNM stage of the disease and the serum TSA levels; but the same was not found between the TNM stage of the disease and the serum LSA levels. In OSCC, the serum TSA and LSA levels had a positive relationship with the TNM stages. These levels decreased significantly after radiotherapy. Conclusion: Serum TSA and LSA can be utilized as potential diagnostic and prognostic indicators in OSCC.
  - 980 199
Estimation of the annual cumulative radiation dose received by the dentist in dental clinics in Chennai
Sanarpalayam Chinaswamy Selvamuthukumar, Shams Ul Nisa, Vimal Kumar Parthasarathy, Mohamed Ansar Sahabudeen, Ratnakar Pamula, Niranjan Reddy Siddareddy
January-March 2014, 26(1):24-29
Aim and Objectives: To estimate the annual cumulative radiation dose received by a dentist in a 'less than an ideally sized clinic' in Chennai. The objective of the study is to estimate the annual cumulative radiation dose received by the dentist at various distances and various angulations from the x-ray tube. Study Design: The head of a mannequin model was mounted on the dental chair to simulate a patient's head and three thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were kept at various distances and various angulations, at a constant height. The standard conventional intraoral dental radiographic unit was used, which was kept stationary, with a constant voltage of 70 Kv, 8 mA current, and a constant exposure time of 0.3 seconds. Ninety-two TLD chips were exposed 20 times a day with constant horizontal angulations for a period of one year. The reading from the TLD chips was obtained on a computer through a TLD Badge Reader. Statistical Analysis: Post Hoc tests and One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Results and Conclusion: A decreasing trend was obtained in the average radiation doses, as the distance increased from the x-ray source, and a highly significant difference in doses (P < 0.001%) was found between 4 and 5.5 feet (ft). We found a minimum average radiation dose at an angle of 60° to 80° and behind the tube. The purpose of this study was to create awareness among dental professionals, who had 'less than an ideally sized clinic'. We recommend that the dentist follow guidelines suggested by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), USA. From this study, it is clear that most clinics are of sizes that do not permit this distance (6 ft), and hence, it is recommended that they use suitable barriers.
  - 2,263 291
Possible role of estrogen in temporomandibular disorders in female subjects: A research study
Altaf Hussain Chalkoo, Mirzada Bilal Ahmad
January-March 2014, 26(1):30-33
Introduction: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are common pain conditions that have the highest prevalence among women of reproductive age. The high prevalence of TMD pain among women, pattern of onset after puberty, and lowered prevalence rates in the postmenopausal years suggest that female reproductive hormones play an etiological role in TMDs. Aims and Objectives: To assess the possible role of estrogen in female subjects with temporomandibular disorders. Materials and Methods: A total of 195 subjects were examined for the study and divided into two groups: TMD positive and TMD negative subjects, which were further divided into women of reproductive age (20-40 years) and postmenopausal women. The serum estrogen (β-estradiol) level was estimated in both the groups. In reproductive women, the serum estrogen level was estimated in the follicular phase. Conclusion: A statistically significant association was found between the female sex hormone estrogen (β-estradiol) level and temporomandibular disorders.
  - 1,823 367
In vivo comparison of Kodak E-speed film and direct digital imaging system for assessment of interproximal bone loss
Mellekatte C Neetha, Mathod C Shashikanth, Anupama N Kalappanavar, Imam M Ali, Pallagatti Shambulingappa
January-March 2014, 26(1):34-41
Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography as compared to a conventional radiographic film for the assessment of interproximal bone loss with intrasurgical measurements as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients, with untreated moderate-to-advanced periodontal disease, were included in the study. The presurgical radiographs were made using a Kodak E-speed film and a Dexis digital sensor simultaneously, for sites with interproximal bone loss. At the time of surgery, the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the bone defect (CEJ-BD) was measured for 331 interproximal defects. The radiographs were randomized and then linear measurements were taken for the same sites in both conventional and digital radiographs. Stastistical Analysis: Comparison between the conventional, digital, and intrasurgical measurements was done statistically using the Student's t-test. The agreement and correlation among the methods was assessed using the weighted Kappa measure of agreement and Pearson's correlation, respectively. Results: The results showed that the conventional (5.15 ± 2.19 mm) and digital analyzing techniques (5.13 ± 2.19 mm) underestimated the interproximal bone loss, as compared to the intrasurgical measurements (6.07 ± 2.05 mm) (p < 0.001). The difference between conventional and digital radiographic methods was found to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.92). Conclusion: Under normal clinical use, the alveolar bone levels revealed on intraoral direct digital radiographs and Kodak E speed film were almost same. Therefore, the digital radiographic system can be routinely used in clinical practice as an alternative to conventional film.
  - 1,073 216
Prevalence of supernumerary teeth in permanent dentition among patients attending a dental college in South Kerala: A pilot study
Devi Gopakumar, Jincy Thomas, Prasanna Ranimol, Daniel Alex Vineet, Sunila Thomas, Vivek Velayudhan Nair
January-March 2014, 26(1):42-45
Background: Supernumerary teeth are excess number of teeth formed as a result of disturbances occurring during odontogenesis. The objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of supernumerary teeth in permanent dentition among patients attending a dental college in South Kerala. Materials and Methods: In this study, 11,141 subjects attending the out-patient department of PMS College of Dental Science and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala were examined for supernumerary teeth like mesiodens, paramolars, distomolars, third premolars, second laterals, and odontomes during the period May 2012-May 2013. Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethical committee for the study. Results: The study showed a prevalence of 0.39% and a sex distribution of M:F equal to 2:1. The incidence of supernumerary teeth found was as follows: mesiodens (0.14%), paramolars (0.13%), third premolar (0.04%), distomolar (0.03%), extralateral (0.02%), and odontome (0.03%). The male:female gender predilection was as follows: mesiodens (3:1), paramolars (1.3:1), third premolar (4:1), distomolar (1:2), and odontome (2:1). Conclusion: This study showed a 0.39% prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this population.
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A case-control study to evaluate salivary cortisol levels in patients with dry mouth
Vandana Shekar, Ravi David Austin, Phillips Mathew
January-March 2014, 26(1):8-12
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the salivary cortisol levels in patients with dry mouth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 20 patients with a complaint of dry mouth and 20 asymptomatic age- and sex-matched controls. In patients who complained of dry mouth, the salivary flow rate (ml/minute) was estimated by measuring the quantity of the saliva collected in the collector. The concentration of cortisol in the saliva (΅g/dl) was determined by using a salivary enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) kit. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated using the Student's t-test. Results: There was only a mild increase in salivary cortisol in both stimulated and unstimulated saliva in patients with dry mouth compared to the controls (p-value 0.981 and 0.481, respectively), which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: There may not be a clear association between the salivary cortisol level and dry mouth. In older individuals, age-associated salivary gland hypofunction and life changes may be the main risk factors for dry mouth compared to stress and anxiety.
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Study of lip prints: A forensic study
Vikash Ranjan, Mysore K Sunil, Raghav Kumar
January-March 2014, 26(1):50-54
Background: Although several studies have been done on lip prints for human identification in forensic science, there is a doubt about their use in gender determination. Aims: The present study was designed to study the lip groove patterns in all the quadrants of both male and female subjects to identify the sex, based on the patterns of the grooves of the lip prints. Study Design: 300 lip prints were collected from volunteers of D. J. College of Dental Sciences and Research, Modinagar (UP). Materials and Methods: Lip prints were recorded with lip stick and transferred on to a glass slide. Statistical Analysis: Pearson chi-square test was adopted for statistical analysis and probability value (P value) was calculated. Conclusion: In our study, none of the lip prints were identical, thus confirming the role of lip prints in individual identification. According to Suzuki's classification, Type I, II, III and IV patterns were significant in gender determination.
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Steroid sparing regimens for management of oral immune-mediated diseases
Arti Agrawal, Mariappan Jonathan Daniel, Subramanian Vasudevan Srinivasan, Vannathan Kumaran Jimsha
January-March 2014, 26(1):55-61
Immune-mediated mucocutaneous disease may present oral symptoms as a first sign of the disease. The primary etiology could be the cellular and/or humoral immune responses directed against epithelial or connective tissue, in a chronic and recurrent pattern. Lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid are the most frequent immunologically mediated mucocutaneous diseases. More often than not, patients present with complaints of blisters, oral ulcers, pain, burning sensation, and bleeding from the various oral sites. Steroids, whether topical or systemic, are the treatment of choice as they have both anti-inflammatory and immune-suppressant properties; however, challenges in the treatment of autoimmune diseases are the complexity of symptoms, the need to manage long-term medications for preserving organ function, and the long-term adverse effects of steroids. In such situations steroid sparing agents, such as, tacrolimus, dapsone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and so on, may be helpful. Here an attempt is made to review various treatment regimens that could be used as alternatives to steroids for management of such diseases.
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Human genetics in oral medicine: A review
Manas Gupta, Bhuvan Jyoti, Rahul Srivastava, Abhishek Pachauri
January-March 2014, 26(1):62-68
In this modern era, oral health practice has become evidence-based dentistry. Genes are hereditary blueprints of human beings. Studies at the molecular levels have revolutionized maxillofacial disorders, and genomic information has done wonders to the cause. This article reviews the previous and current application of human genetics in craniofacial development and disorders, which may lead to individualized treatment and prevention plans in the future.
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Taste disorders: A review
Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage, Jaishankar Homberhalli Puttabuddi, Purnachandrarao Naik Nunsavath, Yehoshuva R Tummuru
January-March 2014, 26(1):69-76
For maintenance of the health of an individual, taste sensation is very important. It is an important sensation that serves to assess the nutritious content of food, support oral intake, and prevent ingestion of potentially toxic substances. Disturbances in the perception of taste can lead to loss of appetite, causing malnutrition and thus distressing both the physical and psychological well-being of the patient. Oral physicians are often the first clinicians who hear complaints about alteration in taste from the patients. In spite of the effect of taste changes on health, literature on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and precise treatment of taste disorders are less. Taste changes may lead patients to seek inappropriate dental treatments. Proper diagnosis of the etiology is the foremost step in the treatment of taste disorders. Thus, it is important that dental clinicians to be familiar with the various causes and proper management of taste changes. In this article, we have reviewed related articles focusing on taste disorders and their management, to provide a quick sketch for the clinicians. A detailed search was performed to identify the systematic reviews and research articles on taste disorders, using PUBMED and Cochrane. All the authors independently extracted data for analysis and review. Ultimately, 26 articles underwent a full text review. In conclusion, the research to date certainly offers us valid management strategies for taste disorders. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success are needed for further intervention.
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