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   2011| April-June  | Volume 23 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 7, 2015

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Dentin Hypersensitivity: Recent Concepts in Management
Vijay Mantri, Rahul Maria, Neeraj Alladwar, Savita Ghom
April-June 2011, 23(2):115-119
Tooth sensitivity is a very common clinical presentation which can cause considerable concern for patients. Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is characterized by short sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response to stimuli. The most widely accepted theory of how the pain occurs is Brannstrom's hydrodynamic theory, fluid movement within the dentinal tubules. The condition generally involves the facial surfaces of teeth near the cervical aspect and is very common in premolars and canines. This condition is frequently encountered by dentists, periodontists, hygienists and dental therapists. Some dental professionals lack confidence in treating DH. The management of this condition requires a good understanding of the complexity of the problem, as well as the variety of treatments available. This review considers the etiopathogenesis, incidence, diagnosis, prevention and management of dentinal hypersensitivity. DH is diagnosed after elimination of other possible causes of the pain. Any treatment plan for DH should include identifying and eliminating predisposing etiologic factors. Professionals should appreciate the role causative factors play in localizing and initiating hypersensitive lesions. It is important to identify these factors so that prevention can be included in the treatment plan. Treatments can be self-administered by the patient at home or be applied by a dental professional in the dental office. At-home methods tend to be simple and inexpensive and can treat simultaneously generalized DH affecting many teeth Desensitizing treatment should be delivered systematically, beginning with prevention and at-home treatments. The latter may be supplemented with in-office modalities.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  863 308 -
Corticosteroids in Dentistry
Basavaraj Kallali, Kamlesh Singh, Vidhi Thaker
April-June 2011, 23(2):128-131
Glucocorticosteroids are used extensively in dentistry for their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Most of the diseases for which steroids are used are characterized by inflammation, which appears secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction against auto components. Glucocorticoids do not interfere with the primary disease mechanisms but they are used because of their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. It seems reasonable to profit from steroids as palliatives in acute phases of the diseases and/or as long-term suppressors of the general host defense. The article deals with the use of corticosteroids in the treatment of the various conditions and diseases affecting oral cavity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  744 341 -
Teledentistry: An Art and Science of Healing
Rajan Shirolkar, Kosha Pritesh Ruparelia, Chandramani More, Pritesh Ruparelia
April-June 2011, 23(2):108-111
Teledentistry is a relatively new field that combines telecommunication technology and dental care. Teledentistry's roots lie in telemedicine. Telemedicine (and by inclusion teledentistry) has been defined as "the practice of health care delivery, diagnosis, consultation, treatment and education using interactive audio, video or data communications'. Improvement in accessibility of health care and lowered health care costs are only two of the many advantages that will emerge as teledentistry becomes integrated with, and fundamentally change, the practice of dentistry. Some barriers still exist for teledentistry practice, including legal, educational and insurance issues. In spite of having these "teething troubles", the potential of telemedicine and teledentistry is tremendous. In this article, we review the development of teledentistry, its use in dental education and treatment planning, its strengths and limitations, and its future role.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  442 275 -
Correlation of Clinical Patterns of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Age, Site, Sex and Habits
Prerna Taneja Mathur, PK Dayal, Keerthilata M Pai
April-June 2011, 23(2):81-85
Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers of world. The histological type referred to is squamous cell carcinoma. The present study is conducted to find out if there is any correlation between clinical patterns of squamous cell carcinoma (papillary, ulcerative and deeply infiltrative) with age, site, sex and habits. The present study derived a positive correltion of clinical patterns of squamous cell carcinoma with site, more studies should be done to validate this fact.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  403 156 -
Micronucleus Assay for Evaluation of Genotoxicity in Potentially Malignant and Malignant Disorders
Parvathi Devi, VB Thimmarasa, Vishal Mehrotra, Pallak Arora
April-June 2011, 23(2):97-100
Oral cancer is a common malignancy, ranking first among all cancers in Western and Asian countries. It is preceded by some benign lesions or conditions, which are termed precancerous. Only one-third of people at the precancerous stage of disease succumb to cancer, it would be of practical importance to identify individuals at risk among them. Biomarkers, instruments of individual tumor prevention, help to detect high-risk patents. The induction of micronucleus is considered to bean effective biomarker of diseases- In the recent past, a great deal of enthusiasm was raised by application of the micronucleus test to assess DNA damage in human population. The present study is aimed at the evaluation of frequency of micronuclei in smears of oral exfoliated cells. A total of 33 patients with potentially malignant (leukoplakia, OSMF, lichen planus) and malignant oral epithelial diseases from the department of oral medicine and radiology were considered as study group and compared with 33 age and sex matched healthy controls. Micronucleus frequencies were found higher in diseased patients than in control subjects- Hence, concluded that the micronucleus assay can be used as a prognostic indicator in potentially malignant and malignant disorders.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  380 162 -
Arteriovenous Malformation of Tongue: A Case Report and Review of Literature
Mallayya Pujari, Shraddha Bahirwani, P Balaji, Rachna Kaul, Bina Shah, Deepak Daryani
April-June 2011, 23(2):139-142
The intracranial arterial or AVMs most commonly present in the head and neck region are usually overlooked when present at birth owing to their innocent appearance. Associated important clinical signs are warmth a palpable thrill and a bruit. They may also be associated with complications, like ischemic changes, indolent ulceration, pain and bleeding. Here, we present a case of AVM of tongue in a 27-year-old male patient which was diagnosed based upon his oral lesions.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  379 141 -
A Correlative Study of Smokeless Tobacco induced Lesion and Smoke-induced Leukoplakia in Various Aspects
Parita K Chitroda, Jigna T Shah, Girish Katti, Sreenivas Ghali
April-June 2011, 23(2):86-91
Various oral mucosal lesions are attributed to tobacco use. The presence of these conditions vanes with particular type of tobacco used (smoking or smokeless ) and the form in which it is used, such as cigarettes, pipes, cigars and chewing moist snuff. The frequency and duration of use as well as the ways in which the tobacco product is used also contributes to the clinical presentation and seventy of the lesion. The present study is mainly focused on the correlation between the smokeless tobacco-induced lesion and smoke-induced leukoplakia on various aspects with an objective to determine smokeless tobacco as a possible cause for leukoplakia.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  357 145 -
Radiographic Determination of Position and Symmetry of Mental Foramen in Central Indian Population
Shweta Gangotri, VM Patni, RS Sathwane
April-June 2011, 23(2):101-103
The mental foramen has been reported to vary in position in different ethnic groups. Repeated failures during injections and operative procedures involving the mental foramen suggest the presence of local differences in a given population. The aim of the present study was to determine the position and symmetry of mental foramen (MF) in a digital panoramic view (OPG) in 90 patents. They were clinically divided into three groups: Group I-Angle's class I malocclusion, group II-Angle's class II malocclusion and group III-Angle's class III malocclusion. The assessment was made for location of mental foramen with reference to the first and second premolars in a digital panoramic view (OPG). The results obtained showed that the common position of mental foramen is below 2nd premolar and between 1st and 2nd premolar. This study concluded that there exists no difference in the appearance of the mental foramen in Angle's class of occlussion and they are not always symmetrical in same individual.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  308 164 -
Plasma Therapy: An Overview
Rajkumar Diwan, FM Debta, Abhijeet Deoghare, Savita Ghom, Anshul Khandelwal, Sarbani Deb Sikdar, Anil G Ghom
April-June 2011, 23(2):120-123
Definition: Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is a collection of charged particles (electrons, ions, neutral atoms). Recent demonstration of plasma technology in treatment of living cells, tissue and organs are creating a new field at the intersection of plasma science and technology with biology and medicine known as plasma medicine. Plasma medicine is one of the newest fields of modem applied plasma chemistry. It appeared several years ago and comprises studies concerning the direct action of low-temperature, one atmosphere air plasma (cold plasma/nonthermal plasmalnonequilibrium) on body tissues for various noninvasive therapeutic treatments or diagnostics purpose. The study of plasma holds promise for a myriad of applications ranging from lasers and electronics, hazardous decontamination, sterilization and disinfection of foods, soil, water, instruments, to medical uses in wound healing and treating certain types of tumors and cancers. Plasma represents a new state-of-the-art sterilization and disinfection treatment for certain oral and environmental pathogens, heat-sensitive materials, hard and soft surfaces, and may assist health care facilities in the management of various health concerns. The role that low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP) could play in the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms might prove to be a new, faster, more economical alternative.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  323 141 -
Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor: Case Reports and Review of Literature
Mukta B Motwani, Sunil S Mishra, Ruchi M Anand, Shirish S Degwekar, Rahul R Bhowate
April-June 2011, 23(2):150-154
The lesion traditionally known as odontogenic keratocyst has been renamed by WHO in 2005, as "keratocystic" odontogenic tumor as it is more appropriate and reflects its potential for local, destructive behavior. It is a benign intraosseous neoplasm of jaw, which is unusual due to its characteristic histopathological and clinical features, including potentially aggressive behavior, high recurrence rate and association with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of proper diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumor in order to prevent the recurrence due to improper surgical excision of the lesion.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  305 128 -
Oral Lumenoscopy: An Adjuvant in Early Screening of Oral Cancer
Anshul Aggarwal, Renuka Ammanagi, Vaishali Keluskar
April-June 2011, 23(2):124-127
The World Health Organization has strongly identified prevention and early detection as one of the major objectives in the control of oral cancer worldwide. Population-based mass screening of oral cancer appears to be a promising health promotion strategy with significant increase in survival rate- However, the current protocol comprising conventional visual inspection and palpation of oral soft tissues for the early detection of premalignant or malignant changes appears to be deficient. 1 Neoplastic epithelial cells tend to have an altered nuclearcytoplasmic ratio. Dehydration with acetic acid highlights this nuclear density and imparts an "acetowhite" appearance to tissue. This phenomenon can be further amplified by replacing conventional lighting with diffuse blue-white chemiluminescent illumination. This article aims to review the usefulness of this screening technology in early detection of oral cancer. The oral lumenoscopy has been proposed to be a method to improve oral screening methods which assist in the identification, evaluation and monitoring of oral mucosal changes. It is a simple, inexpensive and objective method that can provide real-time result for the detection of oral neoplasia which can be used in day to day practice by general dentist.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  292 135 -
Evaluation and Comparison of Accuracy of Measuring the Position of Miniscrew Implants using Two-dimensional Orthopantomogram and a Three-dimensional Imaging with Direct Method on Dried Skull
RH Kamble, Sachin V Patil, PV Hazarey, Anil G Ghom
April-June 2011, 23(2):92-96
Introduction The accuracy of position of miniscrew implants is utmost important for implant success. In this study, we investigated whether the routine 2D ortopantomogram can be used to assess the accuracy in the placement of miniscrews as compared with 3D radiography and direct measurements on a dried skull. Methods: Miniscrew implants were placed in between premolar and molar areas at an angulation of 40΀ to 50΀ for maxilla and 10΀ to 20΀ for mandible on dried skull. Linear and angular measurements were taken on these dried skulls using direct method, ortopantomogram and 3D radiography. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison Tukey's test were used to test for differences in three methods. Results: The results shows 20% vertical magnification for maxilla and mandible whereas horizontal measurements shows 54.2% of variations in maxilla and 27.1% of variations in mandible on panoramic radiographs as compared to direct method and 3D radiography. Angular measurements show 9΀ to 10΀ of variation on panoramic radiographs as compared to direct method and 3D radiography for both maxilla and mandible. Conclusion: Ortopantomogram shows more variations on linear and angular measurements as compared to direct method and 3D radiography whereas direct method and 3D radiography show no difference. But, we can calculate the angulations of miniscrew implant placement by angular regression model.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  287 115 -
Grayscale Ultrasonography in the Assessment of Regional Lymph Nodes in Oral Cancer and its Correlation with TNM Staging and FNAC
Ankur Aggarwal, M Jonathan Daniel, SV Srinivasan, Charles P Sargouname
April-June 2011, 23(2):104-107
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of grayscale ultrasound (US) in differentiation of benign from malignant lymph nodes in oral cancer patients and to correlate the ultrasonographic features with TNM staging and FNAC findings of cervicofacial lymph nodes. Methods: In the study, 34 patients with histopathologically proved oral cancer presenting with enlarged superficial cervicofacial lymphadenopathy were included. The clinical, ultrasonographic and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings were compared in these patients. Patients were assessed for presence of nodes, their size, ratio of maximum longitudinal diameter to maximum transverse diameter (L/T) and echogenicity. All patients then underwent fine needle aspiration cytology of the lymph nodes and the slides were examined for the presence of malignant cells. Results: It was found that ultrasonography had assessed the status of 28 nodes positively out of 34 nodes for metastasis when compared with results of FNAC. Thus, ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 86% in detecting the metastatic nodes when compared with FNAC taken as standard in the detection of metastatic nodes. Conclusion: The lymph node status can be assessed successfully by ultrasonography preoperatively for the presence of metastasis in majority of cases. Therefore, ultrasonography was found to be efficient and cost-effective preoperatively, in planning appropriate management in oral cancer patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  274 124 -
Oral Manifestations established the Diagnosis of Hyperparathyroidism: A Rare Case Report
PV Wanzari, Arati Chaudhary, Vanaja Reddy, Pratiksha Hada
April-June 2011, 23(2):155-158
A case of primary hyperparathyroidism is presented in a patient who reported to our OPD with the complaint of multiple central giant cell granulomas involving the upper and lower jaw. Such rare systemic conditions manifesting in the oral cavity pose a great challenge to diagnosis by the oral physician. However, a thorough clinical, radiological, histpathological and specialized imaging modalities are a key to its successful diagnosis, as was done in our case.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  281 111 -
Van der Woude Syndrome: Case Reports and a Review
K Vinay Kumar Reddy, TVS Ramesh, G Rajasekhar, G Venkateswara Rao, N Kruthi
April-June 2011, 23(2):136-138
Van der Woude syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a cleft lip and cleft palate with congenital lip pits. The variable manifestations include lip pits, absent teeth and isolated cleft lip and cleft palate of varying degrees of severity and other associated anomalies though rare have also been reported. It occurs in equal distribution between both genders. We report two cases of Van der Woude syndrome.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  275 105 -
Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Gingiva: A Case Report and Review of Literature
Niti Singhal, Sugandha Mohan, GK Lehl, N Nagarkar
April-June 2011, 23(2):159-161
Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck is a relatively rare condition that has been poorly understood, characterized and studied. A 28-year-old male patient reported a swelling in relation to the right upper incisor teeth. The lesion was mobile, with slight bleeding on probing. Differential diagnosis of gingival hyperplasia/fibrosis, giant cell epulis, Kaposi s sarcoma, and malignant melanoma were kept. Histopathological sections showed sheets of pleomorphic spindle cells with intracytoplasmic brown-black pigment, involving the lower part of the squamous epithelium- Tumor cells were positive for S-100 and HMB-45 (Human Melanoma Black) immunostain and a diagnosis of malignant melanoma was rendered. The patient underwent partial maxillectomy and the case was categorized as stage If. He also received regional radiotherapy: however after five months, the patient presented with a metastasis to the lymph nodes that was confirmed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The patient underwent radical neck dissection that showed a large tumor mass. In contrast to cutaneous melanoma, the mucosal melanomas have an aggressive vertical growth phase. Different cell types, like spindled, plasmacytoid, and epithelioid may be observed. The treatment of choice is complete excision with adequate negative margins. The role of radiotherapy is not clearly defined since malignant melanoma is relatively insensitive to radiation. The prognosis for mucosal melanoma is generally quite poor because of its tendency to invade and cause early hematogenous metastasis. Nodal involvement reduces survival time and multiple local recurrences are the most common cause of treatment failure.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  258 93 -
Mucormycosis and Myiasis in Uncontrolled Diabetes: A Double Whammy
Om Prakash D Toshniwal, SM Ravi Prakash, Navneet Gill, Sankalp Verma
April-June 2011, 23(2):132-135
Mucormycosis is a rare, often fatal opportunistic fungal infection that is caused by an aerobic saprophytic fungus belonging to the order mucorales and class zygomycetes. Myiasis is caused by the members of the Diptera fly family that lay eggs or larvae on food, necrotic tissue, open wounds, and unbroken skin or mucosa. We report a rare case of mucormycosis coexisting with oral myiasis in a 50-year-old woman with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  231 117 -
Odontogenic Myxoma: Report of Two Cases with Review of Literature
Priya Sara Thomas, G Subhas Babu, Chandni Mishra, RL Anusha, Shishir Shetty
April-June 2011, 23(2):143-146
Myxomas of the jaws are believed to arise from odontogenic ectomesenchyme. They bear a close resemblance to the mesenchymal portion of a developing tooth. Myxomas are predominantly found in young adults. Radiographically myxomas appear as unilocular or mulflocular radiolucencies. The radiolucent defect can contain thin, wispy trabeculae of residual bone which are often arranged at right angles to each other. Recurrence rates from various studies average approximately 25%. We report two cases of odontogenic myxoma, occurring in a 27-year-old female patient and 45-year-old male patient with clinical and radiographic findings and a brief review of literature.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  233 107 -
Creepy Crawlies in the Mouth: A Rare Case Report
Gagan Puri, Sheeba Mohindra, Rajdeep Brar, Prabhleen Brar
April-June 2011, 23(2):147-149
Myiasis is characterized by the invasion of body tissues of live animals by larvae. It is most frequently observed in underdeveloped and tropical countries, though there are cases described worldwide. A case of oral myiasis in the maxillary anterior region in a 13-year-old mentally challenged boy caused by the larvae (maggots) of Musca nebulo (Family Diptera) is reported. The treatment consisted of topical application of turpentine oil, oral therapy with ivermectin and surgical debridement of the oral wound- Diagnosis was based on the visual presence of larvae.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  244 85 -
Indian Perspective of Strengthening Priorities in Cancer Prevention: Connecting the Missing Links
Tushar Phulambrikar, Panjab V Wanjari, Ashish M Warhekar, Prashanthi Reddy
April-June 2011, 23(2):112-114
It will not be incorrect to say that everything in India is or will be on a boom, be it economy, be it population, be it aging of the citizens. and hence longevity, or for that matter even health care facilities- Thus, it is imperative that national policies should be reformed in such a fashion that we take lessons from the west and correct ourselves when we have time in hand, well almost. Increase in globalization, and therefore travel, changing habits and lifestyles, all come with a price and the least desired of all is the globalized disease incidences and disease process. Population growth and aging are the largest contributors to the increasing total number of cancer cases and the shift in the burden of cancer and other chronic diseases toward economically developing countries. Cancer is now the third leading cause of death worldwide. This paper identifies several preventive measures that offer the most feasible approach to mitigate the anticipated global increase in cancer in countries that can least afford it.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  192 108 -