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STUDY
Levamisole and antioxidants in the management of oral submucous fibrosis: A comparative study
Vasanti Jirge, MC Shashikanth, IM Ali, Nisheeth Anshumalee
October-December 2008, 20(4):135-140
DOI:10.4103/0972-1363.52827  
Background and Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic condition of the oral cavity which results in permanent disability. The pathogenesis is poorly understood and the disease is difficult to treat. OSMF is associated with immunological changes (altered levels of serum immunoglobulins) and the effect of treatment (especially antioxidants and levamisole) on serum immunoglobulins (Ig) is not known. This study was carried out to evaluate the clinical effects of levamisole (VERMISOL), and antioxidants (ANTOXID) and its effect on serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM. Meterials and Methods: Forty-five study subjects were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned into three groups. There were 15 patients in each group; group I patients received levamisole, 50 mg three times daily for three alternate weeks, group II patients received 2 capsules of antoxid daily for six weeks, group III patients received levamisole and antoxid. The results were analyzed with paired 't' test and unpaired 't' test. Results: The results indicated that levamisole, antoxid and the combination of levamisole and antoxid showed significant improvement in mouth opening and reduction in burning sensation. Significant reduction of serum IgG, IgA and IgM was seen in the levamisole group and combination group whereas in the antoxid group significant reduction was observed only in serum IgA and IgM. Interpretation and Conclusion: Levamisole can bring about clinical improvement and is better than antoxid and the combination regimen. The addition of antoxid to the treatment regimen does not seem to have an added advantage over levamisole alone.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetic patients
Sreedevi , MC Shashikanth, P Shambulingappa
January-March 2008, 20(1):9-13
DOI:10.4103/0972-1363.44354  
Background and Objectives: The importance of saliva for oral health is well known. Diabetes mellitus affects the salivary gland functioning and thus alters the salivary constituents. For many years the question of the presence of glucose in saliva has been a subject of debate and only few people found correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetics. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate and correlate salivary glucose concentration and serum glucose concentration in diabetics and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 60 newly diagnosed diabetic patients and 60 age and sex matched control subjects were included in the study. Blood and saliva samples from both the groups were collected at least two hours after the breakfast. The samples were centrifuged and subjected to glucose analysis using Semiautoanalyzer (BioSystems BTS-310 Photometer). For experimental group, the samples were collected again after the control of diabetes mellitus. The statistical comparisons were performed using paired and unpaired t -test. Results: A highly significant correlation was found between salivary glucose and serum glucose before the treatment and also after the control of diabetes. The correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose was also highly significant in controls. The levels of salivary glucose did not vary with age and sex. Conclusion and Interpretation: As there was significant correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose, salivary glucose holds the potential of being a marker in diabetes. Further, it has an added advantage of being non-invasive procedure with no need of special equipments and with fewer compliance problems as compared with collection of blood.
  2 1,978 540
REVIEW ARTICLE
Antioxidants: Enhancing oral and general health
Arvind Shetti, Vaishali Keluskar, Ashish Aggarwal
January-March 2009, 21(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/0972-1363.57770  
Free radicals and antioxidant therapy have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Antioxidants are compounds that destroy the free radicals in the body, thereby preventing harmful oxidation-reduction reactions. Antioxidants are critical for maintaining optimum health and well-being. The best sources of antioxidants are fruits and vegetables, which provide a variety of antioxidants such as Vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids. Currently available data are compatible with the notion that these vitamins act as chemopreventives against some important cancers, e.g., carotenoids for lung cancer, ascorbic acid for salivary gland cancer, tocopherols for head and neck cancers, etc. Thus, a greater consumption of fruits and vegetables should be encouraged as they are the natural sources of these chemopreventive antioxidants along with other protective factors packaged by nature.
  2 2,957 801
CASE REPORTS
Orofacial manifestations of congenital hypothyroidism: Clinicoradiological case report
Gundareddy N Suma, Manisha Lakhanpal, Manu Dhillon, Siddharth Srivastava
January-March 2014, 26(1):111-114
DOI:10.4103/0972-1363.141876  
Thyroid disorders have a widespread effect on the ossification of cartilage, growth of teeth, facial contour, and overall body proportions. Both growth hormones and thyroid hormones show permissive action on growth stimulation. Deregulation in thyroid homeostasis can result in various orofacial and skeletal abnormalities. This report describes a case of congenital hypothyroidism in a 20-year-old female patient, presenting with a short stature, hypotonia, alopecia, euryprosopic face with puffiness, multiple retained deciduous teeth, delayed fusion of the intracranial sutures, and epiphysis and diaphysis of the long bones. Based on various biochemical and radiographic investigations, diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism was established. Craniometry and hand-wrist radiographic evaluation of the growth pattern further aided in strengthening the diagnosis.
  1 2,303 303
Osteochondroma of the condyle
Karthikeya Patil, VG Mahima, Sujith Shetty, S Sudhakar
July-September 2009, 21(3):130-133
DOI:10.4103/0972-1363.58755  
Osteochondroma, also known as osteocartilaginous exostosis, is a benign cartilage capped outgrowth attached to the underlying skeleton by a short stalk. Osteochondroma is frequently seen in the axial skeleton but rarely occurs in the craniofacial skeleton. We report a case of osteochondroma arising from the right mandibular condyle.
  1 897 149
Osteosarcoma of jaw bone
Avani Gandhi Dixit, Nipa J Parikh
January-March 2008, 20(1):41-44
DOI:10.4103/0972-1363.44361  
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children. Its radiolographic appearances vary considerably. It may show a number of presentations from onion skin or sunburst appearance. Osteosarcoma of maxilla and mandible are distinct from long bone osteosarcoma and shows a distinct clinical, histologic and prognostic characteristic that when diagnosed and treated properly have a better prognosis from the later. The present article reports a case of osteogenic sarcoma of maxillary alveolar ridge and compares it with long bones osteosarcomas.
  1 1,014 288
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
An intraoral periapical radiographic study of nutrient canals as a diagnostic aid in systemic diseases and pathological conditions
Vanaja G Reddy, IM Ali, MC Shashikanth
April-June 2008, 20(2):49-53
DOI:10.4103/0972-1363.44364  
Objectives: To correlate the prevalence of nutrient canals in healthy dentulous with healthy edentulous, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and periodontally compromised patients. Methods: Study was conducted on 500 subjects in the age group of 21-70 years. They were clinically and radiographically examined using intraoral periapical radiographs, and were statistically analyzed. Results: On Comparing with control group, prevalence of nutrient canals was observed to be highly significant in diabetes (27%, P<0.001), significant in edentulous (22%, P<0.01), hypertensive (21%, P<0.01) and periodontitis (17%, P<0.05) groups. Highly significant age wise prevalence was observed in edentulous and periodontitis groups and a significant increase in diabetes and hypertensive groups. Interpretation and Conclusion: Significant correlation was observed in diabetes, edentulous, hypertensive and periodontitis groups, when compared with healthy subjects. Increase in prevalence of nutrient canals on mandibular anterior IOPAR can be used as an adjunct diagnostic aid in systemic diseases like diabetes, hypertension and periodontitis.
  1 2,379 821
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of age based on the pulp cavity width of the maxillary central incisors
Uday Ginjupally, Ramaswamy Pachigolla, Sudhakar Sankaran, Smitha Balla, Sreenivasulu Pattipati, Sai Kiran Chennoju
January-March 2014, 26(1):46-49
DOI:10.4103/0972-1363.141855  
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the age of the patients belonging to the age group of 15 - 55 years, attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, St. Joseph Dental College and Hospital, Eluru, based on the radiographic evaluation of the pulp cavity width of the maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 120 subjects. Intraoral periapical radiographs of the maxillary central incisors were taken for all subjects, using the conventional paralleling angle technique and the pulp cavity width was measured at the cervical and middle third using a digital vernier caliper. The data obtained was subjected to correlation and regression analysis. Results: A negative linear relationship was obtained between the age and pulp cavity width (cervical third, r = -0.459 and middle third, r = -0.704). Cubic regression analysis was done and the regression formulae were obtained. A mean difference of 0.1 years was obtained between the estimated age and real age, indicating the reliability of the derived formula. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the width of the pulp cavity of maxillary central incisors are reliable for estimation of age.
  1 1,383 337
REVIEW ARTICLES
Biohazards in dentistry
M Manjunath, TA Deepak, Sowmya Krishna, R Bhanushree
October-December 2008, 20(4):125-128
DOI:10.4103/0972-1363.52822  
Dentists constitute a group of professionals who are likely to be exposed to biological health hazards in the course of their work. Relying on relevant literature, the present paper discusses selected occupational biohazards as well as baseline precautionary measures. A dentist can become infected either directly or indirectly as they deal with the potential carriers of these biohazards. So it is important and mandatory for every practitioner of dentistry to know about biohazards.
  1 2,456 615
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