Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Search Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 608
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 330-334

Elongated styloid process evaluation on digital panoramic radiographs: A retrospective study


1 Department of Oral Medicine Diagnosis and Radiology, MN DAV Dental College and Hospital, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India
2 Department of Orthodontics, Rayat Bahra Dental College and Hospital, Mohali, Punjab, India
3 Department of Pedodontics, MN DAV Dental College and Hospital, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India

Date of Submission09-Jun-2020
Date of Decision10-Oct-2020
Date of Acceptance15-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication28-Dec-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. MunBhawni Bagga
Department of Oral Medicine Diagnosis and Radiology, MN DAV Dental College and Hospital, Oachghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_108_20

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


Background: The precise knowledge about anatomy of both normal and abnormal styloid process is important for clinicians, surgeons, and radiologists. Thus, the present study highlighted the prevalence of anatomic-radiological features of elongated Styloid process on panoramic radiography. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate and classify the radiographic appearance of the Styloid process (SP) along with morphologic characteristics and patterns of calcification according to the subject gender and site predilection. Materials and Method: A random sample of 1706 good quality digital panoramic radiographs were included in present study. Elongated SPs were classified with the radiographic appearance based on morphology and calcification pattern. The data were analyzed by using student t test and Chi-squared with significance set at P = 0.05. Results: Bilateral elongation having “Elongated” Type SP with “partially calcified” pattern was the most frequent SP. No correlation was found between SP type and calcification pattern and subject gender, although elongated Styloid was more prevalent among male population (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Dentists should recognize the existence of morphological variation in elongated Styloid process apparent on panoramic radiographs. According to our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in Solan region to evaluate Styloid process elongation (SPE) and also had recorded highest prevalence of SPE in comparison with other studies conducted in Indian population. We found calcification of the Styloid process is common in older age groups with no correlation to gender and site predilection. “Type I” with “partially calcified” of the Styloid process was observed most frequently in the population studied.

Keywords: Calcification, styloid process and panoramic radiography


How to cite this article:
Bagga M, Bhatnagar D, Kumar N. Elongated styloid process evaluation on digital panoramic radiographs: A retrospective study. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2020;32:330-4

How to cite this URL:
Bagga M, Bhatnagar D, Kumar N. Elongated styloid process evaluation on digital panoramic radiographs: A retrospective study. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Mar 6];32:330-4. Available from: https://www.jiaomr.in/text.asp?2020/32/4/330/305264




   Introduction Top


The styloid process (SP) is a cylindrical, slender, needle-like projection from the inferior part of petrous temporal bone. Many nerves and vessels such as carotid arteries and internal jugular vein are adjacent to the SP.[1] The normal SP length is approximately 20-30 mm.[2] The styloid process tapers toward its tip and offers attachment to the stylohyoid ligament, stylopharyngeus, and styloglossus muscles. Many important neurovascular structures like facial and hypoglossal nerves, occipital artery lie near the tip of the styloid process.[3] Keur JJ suggested the SP length which is longer than 30 mm can be considered to be styloid process elongation (SPE).[4]

Eagle an Otorhinolaryngologist first described a term, “Eagle syndrome” characterized by an elongated styloid process and pain in the cervicofacial region.[5] The elongation can be frequently encountered by calcification of stylohyoid and stylomandibular ligaments which precipitates a series of signs and clinical symptoms of neck and cervicofacial pain. More uncommonly, symptoms such as dysphagia, foreign body sensation in the throat, vertigo, facial pain, tinnitus, and otalgia were present.[2] The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, morphology, and calcification pattern of the elongated SP in Solan population and its relation to subject gender and age.


   Materials and Method Top


A total of 2000 digital panoramic radiographs were consecutively retrieved from the archival records of department of Oral Medicine and Radiology from January 2019 to December 2019. The regionality, age, and gender of patients were recorded from the case history. Only good quality radiographs showing the styloid process were included, while radiographs having positioning and magnification errors were excluded from the study. Out of total of 2000 panoramic radiographs only 1706 were considered as good quality and included in present study. The sample size was calculated taking power of the study to be 80%, DEFF as 1.1 and expected response rate as 90%. The inclusion criteria were digital panoramic radiograph showing both styloid processes, good quality radiograph, and those radiographs in which data regarding regionality, age, and gender of patients were available. However, the exclusion criteria were positioning and magnification errors in radiograph, superimposition of temporal bone, and obscured images of either of the styloid process.

The digital panoramic radiographs were taken by Planmeca (Promax version 4.1) under standard exposure factor as recommended by the manufacturer. Our study was exempted from the DAV Institution Review Board Ethics Committee (wide letter no DAV/DCH/IRBC no. 735 dated 27.12.18) as all included panoramic radiographs were retrieved from the records of the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology department and were taken for reasons other than the purpose of this study. The procedure is in accord with the ethical standards as per Helsinki Declaration of 1975.

The subjects consisted of 1181 males and 525 females with mean age of elongated styloid as 37.64 ± 7.3 years and non-elongated styloid process as 32.35 ± 6.1 years. .

Independently, length and calcification pattern of right and left SPs were analyzed and if the styloid process extends below an imaginary line connecting the anterior nasal spine and the mastoid process it was considered elongated [Figure 1]a & [Figure 1]b.[6] When SP elongation present it was recorded as unilateral or bilateral and classified according to the Langlais et al.[7] [Figure a, b, c &d]. Four study groups were made as Non elongated (group 1), unilateral right side SPE (group 2), unilateral left side SPE (group 3) and bilateral SPE (group 4) [Table 1].
Figure 1: (a) Anterior nasal spine and mastoid process landmark on panoramic radiograph. (b) Imaginary line connecting the anterior nasal spine and mastoid process

Click here to view
Table 1: Distribution of groups in study population

Click here to view


The relationship between elongated styloid process, age, and gender were investigated. Examination of the panoramic radiographs was carried by single investigator. The data were analyzed by using t–test and Chi-square tests. All analyses were executed using SPSS 20.0 (Statistical package for social science Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA).


   Results Top


Out of 1706 total study subjects, there were 768 (45%) with elongated styloid process and 938 (55%) non elongated styloid process calcification [Figure 3]a. Out of 768 elongated styloid processes, 598 (77.9%) were bilateral elongated while elongation on left side was seen in 82 (10.7%) and elongation on right side was seen in 88 (11.5%) [Figure 3]b Out of 1181 males, 529 (44.8%) were with elongated styloid process and 652 (55.2%) were with non-elongated styloid process and out of 525 females, 239 (45.5%) were with elongated styloid process and 286 (54.5%) were with non-elongated styloid process [Figure 4].
Figure 3: (a) Pie chart showing group wise distribution. (b) Pie chart showing distribution of elongated styloid process

Click here to view
Figure 4: Bar chart showing gender wise elongated and non-elongated styloid process

Click here to view


Calcified styloid was more prevalent among the older age group and male population. The mean age was significantly higher in the patients with SPE than the patients without SPE (P < 0.001). The mean age for male and female patients with SPE were 40.34 ± 7.6 and 34.94 ± 7.1 years, respectively [Table 2]. Highly significant differences were observed in between two categories i.e., elongated and non elongated styloid process among male population and total population (P < 0.001).
Table 2: Comparison of difference in mean age between the study population

Click here to view


In Solan population among group 2, 3, and 4 the most frequent type of calcification was elongated (Type I) with pattern observed was Partially Calcified (Pattern B) as shown in [Figure 2] [Table 3]. There was no association found between the gender and the type of styloid process with Group 2 (P > 0.05), with Group 3 (P > 0.05) and with Group 4 (P > 0.05). Moreover, there was no association between the pattern and the Group 2 (P > 0.05), with Group 3 (P > 0.05) and with Group 4 (P > 0.05) [Table 4].
Figure 2: (a) Classification of elongation of SP; Type I (elongated), Type II (pseudo articulated), and Type III (segmented). (b) Pattern of calcification [A: Calcified outline; B: Partially calcified; C: Nodular; D: Completely calcified]. (c) OPG with each type of calcification [Type I, Type II & Type III]. (d) OPG with each pattern of calcification [Pattern A, B, C & D]

Click here to view
Table 3: Prevalence and correlation of gender for pattern and type of calcification among group 2, 3 & 4

Click here to view
Table 4: Total styloid calcification comparison in between site (right and left) and gender (male and female)

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


The elongation of the styloid process and structural changes in stylohyoid ligament with its clinical symptoms and signs were first described by Eagle. Hence, it is termed as the Eagle's syndrome. Eagle's syndrome is diagnosed by both physical and radiographic examination.[3] The styloid process palpation in the tonsillar fossa is indicative of SPE which are not normally palpable. If highly suspicious for Eagle's syndrome, confirmation can be done by radiographic imaging.[2],[8] There are many vessels such as carotid arteries and nerves adjacent to the styloid process. The signs and symptoms with this syndrome are due to the anatomic relationship between the styloid process and its surrounding structures.[9],[10] The symptoms can be confused with some disorders including a wide variety of facial neuralgias, oral and temporomandibular diseases.[11],[12] Therefore, a detailed differential diagnosis for styloid process elongation should be done.[13] The important radiographic views taken for evaluation of styloid process are Panoramic, Lateral oblique of ramus of mandible, Towne's view, AP view, Transpharyngeal view, and CT scan.[14]

The pathophysiology behind the pain due to elongated styloid process was compression of the neural elements, the glossopharyngeal nerve, lower branch of the trigeminal nerve, and/or the chorda tympani by the elongated styloid process.[15] The compression further leads to proliferation of granulation tissue that causes continuous pressure on surrounding structures and results in pain.[16]

Several theories are proposed to explain the variance in ossification and elongation of styloid process namely theory of reactive metaplasia, reactive hyperplasia, anatomic variance, aging, developmental anomaly, and trauma leading to loss of elasticity in ligament simulating tendinosis.[17] The calcification of Styloid is now considered as a part of heterotopic bone formation or ossification[18] because microstructurally osteoid matrix is also present with the calcification.[19] The regional factors too play significant role like dietary factors for different pattern and types of styloid process elongation.[14] Despite all these theories, still the etiology remains unclear.[20] Since the styloid process may exhibit anatomical variations that differ from person to person and population to population.[21]

Panoramic radiographic techniques usually distort the dimension of the styloid process and produce magnification of the radiographic image which depends on the angulations of the process itself.[5],[22] Therefore, a simple millimeter measurement is not a suitable criterion because of the radiologic factors involved. Taking this factor into consideration, to determine the length of styloid process, ruler measurement was not chosen.[8] The elongated styloid process in the radiographs were determined according to the method proposed by Ferrario et al.[6]

According to our knowledge, the present study is the first report investigating the styloid process elongation prevalence, morphology, and calcification pattern and its relation to subject gender and age on digital panoramic radiographs in Solan population.

In our study the prevalence of elongated SP among the Solan population, combining both unilateral and bilateral instances, was 45%. This compares to values ranging from 2% to greater than 30% reported in literature.[4],[23],[24],[25] The higher prevalence of elongated styloid could be attributed to the combination of factors including race, lifestyle and dietary habits. In Solan population majority of them are farmers, so weight loading[26] and strenuous work promotes ossification in the ligament. Racial predisposition also favors ossification of ligament as center of ossification varies in a race.[27]

We also observed that calcified styloid was more prevalent among the older age group and male population which are in accordance with previous findings.[17],[28] The reason could be ageing[29] and reactive hyperplasia, respectively.[17]

Bozkir et al. reported the bilateral elongation in 75% and unilateral in 25% of cases on panoramic radiography. Our study also showed that in elongated styloid process 77.9% of cases were bilateral and 22.2% cases were unilateral.[18] More CB et al. reported the prevalence of Type I and partially calcified styloid process in >85% of Gujarat population which was in accordance with our study i.e., >55%.[17] Our data is in accordance with to previous literature findings of SPE in the south Indian population.[30] The bilateral SPE could be attributed to the fact that strenuous exercise and chewing habits result in clenching of jaw muscles that increases weight loading of Styloid process bilaterally and promotes ossification.

There was no statistically significant difference observed between genders for Styloid process elongation. This is in agreement with the reports of previous literature.[6],[31]

When the elongated SP does not extend to the angle of the mandible, it is difficult to determine the related ligament. However, in theory of reactive metaplasia it was stated that the stylohyoid ligament is the structure responsible for abnormal ossification as it undergoes metaplasia and partial ossification. We recommend the term ''mineralized stylohyoid-stylomandibular ligament complex'' in view of the ambiguity of these structures when viewed on panoramic radiographs which is in accordance with the previous literature findings of Correll et al.[32] and Zaki et al.[24]

Limitations and Future prospects

Since panoramic radiography is a 2D imaging technique, further advanced imaging studies are required to correlate the symptoms, dietary patterns, lifestyles and styloid process elongation.


   Conclusion Top


Panoramic radiography plays an important role in patients with symptoms of styloid process elongation and can thus help to avoid misinterpretation of the symptoms as tonsillar pain or pain of dental, muscular, or pharyngeal origin. Elongation or calcification of SP in older adults was common without gender predilection in the present study. “Type I” with “partially calcified” SP was observed most frequently in the population studied. Awareness could be created among people who are prone for SPE specially in farmers.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Chaurasia BD. Styloid apparatus: Deep structures in the neck. In: Chaurasia BD, editor. Human Anatomy Regional and Applied Dissection and Clinical- Head neck and Brain. Vol. 3. CBS Publishers 2019. p12.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Warrier S, Nanthini KC, Subadra K, Dhivya M Harin. Eagle's Syndrome: A case report of unilateral elongated styloid process. Cureus 2019;11:e4430.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Eagle WW. Elongated styloid process. Report of two cases. J Arch Otolaryngol 1937;25:548-87.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Keur JJ, Campbell JP, McCarthy JF. The clinical significance of the elongated styloid process. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986;61:399-404.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Hettiarachchi PVKS, Jayasinghe RM, Fonseka MC, Jayasinghe RD, Nanayakkara CD. Evaluation of the styloid process in a Sri Lankan population using digital panoramic radiographs. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2019;9:73-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ferrario VF, Sigurta D, Daddona A, Dalloca L, Miani A, Tafuro F, et al. Calcification of the stylohyoid ligament: Incidence and morphoquantitative evaluations. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1990;69:524-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Langlais RP, Miles DA, Van Dis ML. Elongated and mineralized stylohyoid ligament complex: A proposed classification and report of a case of Eagle's syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986;61:527-32.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kursoglu P, Unalan F, Erdem T. Radiological evaluation of the styloid process in young adults' resident in Turkey's Yeditepe University faculty of dentistry. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Oral Endod 2005;100:491-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Custodio AL, Silva MR, Abreu MH, Araújo LR, de Oliveira LJ. Styloid process of the temporal bone: Morphometric analysis and clinical implications. Biomed Res Int 2016;2016:8792725.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Natsis K, Repousi E, Noussios G, Papathanasiou E, Apostolidis S, Piagkou M. The styloid process in a Greek population: An anatomical study with clinical implications. Anat Sci Int 2015;90:67-74.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Jung T, Tschernitschek H, Hippen H, Schneider B, Borchers L. Elongated styloid process: When is it really elongated? Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2004;33:119-124.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Vadgaonkar R, Murlimanju BV, Prabhu LV, Rai R, Pai MM, Tonse M, et al. Morphological study of styloid process of the temporal bone and its clinical implications. Anat Cell Biol 2015;48:195–200.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kusunoki T, Homma H, Kidokoro Y, Yanai A, Fujimaki M, Ikeda K, et al. A case of a very elongated styloid process 8 cm in length with frequent throat pain for 10 years. Clin Pract 2016;6:820.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Shayganfar A, Golbidi D, Yahay M, Nouri S, Sirus S. Radiological evaluation of the styloid process length using 64-row multidetector computed tomography scan. Adv Biomed Res 2018;7:85.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
15.
Worden CP, Bhandari SS, Cable BB, Kuehl DR. Eagle Syndrome: A rare case of atraumatic, painful cervical neck swelling. Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med 2020;4:197-200.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Ceylan A, Köybaşioğlu A, Celenk F, Yilmaz O, Uslu S, et al. Surgical treatment of elongated styloid process: Experience of 61 cases. Skull Base, 2008;18:289–95.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
More CB, Asrani M. Evaluation of the Styloid process on the digital panoramic radiographs. Ind J Radiol Imaging 2010;20:261-5.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Bozkir MG, Boga H, Dere F. The evaluation of elongated styloid process in panoramic radiographs in edentulous patients. Tr J Med Sci 1999;29:481-5.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Iwanaga J, Watanabe K, Saga T, Tabira Y, Yamaki KI. Morphometric study of a huge elongated styloid process. Kurume Med J 2017;63:45-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Sharma N, Ram R, Kamal R. Unusually elongated styloid process: A report of two cases with literature review. Ann Maxillofac Surg 2016;6:297-9.  Back to cited text no. 20
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
21.
AlZarea BK. Prevalence and pattern of the elongated styloid process among geriatric patients in Saudi Arabia. Clin Interv Aging 2017;12:611-7.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Vieira EM, Guedes OA, Morais SD, Musis CR, Albuquerque PA, Borges ÁH, et al. Prevalence of elongated styloid process in a central Brazilian population. J Clin Diagn Res 2015;9:90–92.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Alpoz E, Akar GC, Celik S, Govsa F, Lomcali G. Prevalence and pattern of stylohyoid chain complex patterns detected by panoramic radiographs among Turkish population. Surg Radiol Anat 2014;36:39–46.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Zaki HS, Greco CM, Rudy TE, Kubinski JA. Elongated Styloid process in a temporomandibular disorder sample: Prevalence and treatment outcome. J Prosthet Dent 1996;75:399-405.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Erol B. Radiological assessment of elongated Styloid process and ossified stylohyoid ligament. J Marmara Univ Dent Fac 1996;2:554-6.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Crowley LV. Structure and function of skeletal system. In: Crowley LV, et al. An Introduction to Human Diseases: Pathology and Pathophysiology Correlation. 8th ed.. Jones and Barelett Publishers. 2009:719-20.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Srivastav A, Sarsawat PK, Gupta P. A study of wrist ossification for age estimation in paediatric group in central Rajasthan. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2004;26:132-5.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Bruno G, Stefane AD, Balarso P, Mazzoleni S, Gracco A. Elongated styloid process: An epidemiological study on digital panoramic radiographs. J Clin Exp Den 2017;9e1446-52.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Carmada AJ, Deschamps C, Forest D. Stylohyoid chain ossification: A discussion of etiology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989;67:508-14.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Sridevi K, Mahesh N, Krishnaveni B, Deepika AD. Evaluation of styloid process and its anatomical variations: A digital panoramic study with systematic review. J Int Soc Prevent Communit Dent 2019;9:256-62.  Back to cited text no. 30
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
31.
Omnell KA, Gandhi C, etal. Ossification of the human stylohyoid ligament. A longitudial study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1998;85:22632.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Correll RW, Jensen JL, Taylor JB, Rhyne RR. Mineralization of the stylo-hyoid-stylomandibular ligament complex: A radiographic incidence study. Oral Surg 1979;48:286-91.  Back to cited text no. 32
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

   Abstract Introduction Materials and Method Results Discussion Conclusion Article Figures Article Tables
  In this article
 References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed930    
    Printed14    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded152    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]