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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 38-40

Alteration in serum lipid profile pattern in oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis patients


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India

Date of Submission19-Sep-2017
Date of Acceptance17-Feb-2018
Date of Web Publication23-Apr-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kumar Anand
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Patna, Bihar
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_88_17

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   Abstract 


Introduction: Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is one of the commonest potentially malignant disorders in India. Hypolipidemia can be considered as one of the biochemical marker in early detection of cancer. Context: This study is undertaken to evaluate the role of serum lipids as tumor markers in the diagnosis of oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer. Aim: To determine the significance of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipid cholesterol (HDLC) triglycerides as tumor markers in the diagnosis of OSMF. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted in outpatient Department of Oral medicine and Radiology. Thirty cases each of clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), OSMF, and 30 controls were selected and serum lipid analysis was done. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test (student t-test) was used for statistical analysis in this study. Results: The serum lipid level was statistically significantly lowered in patients with oral cancer and OSMF when compared with normal control group. There is an inverse relationship between serum lipid profile pattern in oral cancer as well as in OSMF. Conclusions: The serum lipid level was statistically significantly lowered in patients with oral cancer and OSMF when compared with normal control group. The lower serum lipid status may be considered as a useful biochemical marker for early detection of cancer.

Keywords: Biomarker; cholesterol, lipid, oral cancer, oral submucous fibrosis


How to cite this article:
Anand K, Sudheer A, Chatterjee K. Alteration in serum lipid profile pattern in oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis patients. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2018;30:38-40

How to cite this URL:
Anand K, Sudheer A, Chatterjee K. Alteration in serum lipid profile pattern in oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis patients. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Oct 26];30:38-40. Available from: https://www.jiaomr.in/text.asp?2018/30/1/38/230900




   Introduction Top


Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide.[1] Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is one of the commonest potentially malignant disorders in India. Hypolipidemia can be considered as one of the biochemical marker in early detection of cancer.[2] Research studies reveal an association of plasma lipids and lipoproteins with different cancer. These lipids get altered quantitatively in the serum during tumour development and may be considered as one of the biochemical markers in the early detection of cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of serum lipids as tumour markers in the diagnosis of Oral cancer and Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF). The aim of this study was to determine the significance of total cholesterol (TC), Highdensity lipid cholesterol (HDLC), and triglycerides in oral cancer and potentially malignanat disorders.


   Patients and Methods Top


Study was designed to be conducted on patients reporting to outpatient Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology (OMR).

Exclusion criteria:

  1. Patients with systemic diseases like diabetes mellitus, nephrosis, hypertension, endocrine disturbances, liver dysfunction, and lipid metabolism disorder
  2. Obese patients
  3. Pregnant women
  4. Patient taking medication for hyperlipidemia
  5. Patient under treatment for oral cancer and OSMF.



   Procedures Top


Ethical committee clearance and approval was taken. The patient was explained about the procedure and informed consent was taken in the prescribed format. 5 mL of fasting blood sample was collected from each patient and stored in vacutainers. Blood was allowed to clot and then centrifuged for 15 min at 3000 rpm to separate the serum for lipid analysis. Lipid analysis was done on a chemical analyzer (LIFE LAB CL - 8 FILTER DIGITAL COLORIMETER MINI ANALYZER WITH Non-volatile random access memory MEMORY) based on the spectrophotometric principle [Figure 1]. Analysis was made by an enzymatic photometric test using a wavelength of 505 nm only.
Figure 1: Armamentarium for Analysis of Lipid Profile

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Lipid parameters with their normal range: TC – 130–250 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) – 30–70 mg/dL, serum triglycerides up to 150 mg/dL.


   Results Top


In control group 9 patients showed the presence of habits (30%) and 21 patients showed no habit. In Oral Cancer group 25 patients showed presence of habits (83.3%) and five patients showed no habits (16.7%). In OSMF all of patients showed presence of habit [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of study group based on presence or absence of habits

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The mean serum cholesterol, serum HDL cholesterol, and mean serum triglyceride levels in Oral Cancer group were 144.75 mg/dL, 37.10 mg/dL, and 103.48 mg/dL respectively. In the control group the corresponding values were 174.66 mg/dL, 55.51 mg/dL, and 148.88 mg/dL respectively. The values evidently show that oral cancer patients had lower serum HDL cholesterol (P < 0.05) and lower serum triglyceride (P < 0.05) values when compared with healthy control groups [Table 2].
Table 2: Comparison of serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides in control group and Oral Cancer group

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The mean serum cholesterol, serum HDL cholesterol, and mean serum triglyceride levels in OSMF group were 162.87 mg/dL, 46.57 mg/dL, and 115.79 mg/dL respectively. In the control group, the corresponding values were 174.66 mg/dL, 55.51 mg/dL, and 148.88 mg/dL respectively [Table 3]. The values evidently show that OSMF patients have significantly (P < 0.05) lower serum cholesterol, lower serum HDL cholesterol, and lower serum triglyceride values when compared with healthy control groups.
Table 3: Comparison of serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides in control group and oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) group

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   Discussion Top


In this study out of 30 oral cancer subjects, 25 subjects presented with the habit of tobacco chewing and five subjects had no history of habits. This result is consistent with the result of Massano et al. in 2006 who had stated that tobacco chewing habit is strongly associated with oral cancer.[3] In the present study out of 30 OSMF subjects, all the 30 subjects gives the history of habit of betel nut chewing this result is consistent with the findings of Rajendran et al. in 2003, he suggested that the occurrence of lesion was strongly associated with the habit of betel nut chewing.[4]

In the present study, the values evidently show that oral cancer patients have lower serum cholesterol, significantly lower serum HDL cholesterol and lower serum triglyceride values when compared with healthy control groups. This result is consistent with the result of studies Lohe et al. in 2010. It was found that significant decrease in TC, HDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglyceride in oral cancer group; and significant decrease in TC, and HDL in oral precancer group as compared to control.[5]

Ghosh et al. in 2011 also found similar results in their study; there was significant decrease in TC, HDL, VLDL, and triglyceride in oral cancer group; and significant decrease in TC, and HDL in oral precancer group as compared to control.[6]

Result was also consistent with the study of Gupta et al. in 2011. who found that a significant decrease in HDLC and triglyceride in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients as compared to the controls.[7]

In the present study, the values evidently show that OMSF patients have significantly lower serum cholesterol, lower serum HDL cholesterol, and lower serum triglyceride values when compared with healthy control groups.

Result was also consistent with the study of Kumar et al. in 2013. They found that a statistically significant decrease in plasma TC, LDL, and HDL was observed in patients with OSMF as compared to the controls.[8]

Result was also consistent with the study of Patel et al. in 2004. They found a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol and HDLC in patients with oral precancerous condition (OPC) as compared to control.[9]


   Conclusions Top


The serum cholesterol, serum HDL cholesterol, and serum triglyceride levels are found to be significantly lowered in patients with oral cancer and OSMF when compared with normal control group. This alteration in serum lipid profile pattern act as biomarker in oral cancer and OSMF patients. A study on large sample size is needed to establish these parameters as a potential prognostic biomarker for the early detection and better prognosis of cancerous and precancerous conditions.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Feller L, Lemmer J. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment. J Cancer Therapy 2012;3:263-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Shevale VV, Kalra RD, Shevale VV, Shringarpure MD. Management of oral sub-mucous fibrosis: A review. Ind J Dent Sci 2012;2:107-14.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Massano J, Regateiro FS, Januário G, Ferreira A. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: Review of prognostic and predictive factors. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006;102:67-76.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Rajendran R. Oral submucous fibrosis. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2003;7:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 4
  [Full text]  
5.
Lohe VK, Degwekar SS, Bhowate RR, Kadu RP, Dangore SB. Evaluation of correlation of serum lipid profile in patients with oral cancer and precancer and its association with tobacco abuse. J Oral Pathol Med 2010;39:141-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.
Ghosh G, Jayaram KM, Patil RV, Malik S. Alteration in serum lipid profile pattern in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. J Contemporary Dent Pract 2011;12:451-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Gupta S, Gupta S. Alterations in serum lipid profile pattern in oral cancer and oral precancer lesion and condition: A clinical study. Ind J Dent 2011;2:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kumar P, Singh A, Sankhla B, Naraniya A. Alteration in plasma lipid profile in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study. South Asian J Cancer 2013;2:147-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
9.
Patel PS, Shah MH, Jha FP, Raval GN, Rawal RM, Patel MM, et al. Alteration in plasma lipid profile pattern in head and neck cancer and oral precancerous conditions. Ind J Cancer 2004;41:25-31.  Back to cited text no. 9
    


    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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