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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 145-148

Comparative study to analyse the correlation between dermatoglyphics and impacted teeth


Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, AME'S Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission28-Feb-2020
Date of Decision09-May-2020
Date of Acceptance15-May-2020
Date of Web Publication27-Jun-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bellam B Rachel
AME'S Dental College and Hospital, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_29_20

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   Abstract 


Background and Aims: Dental impaction is a serious challenge to the dental practitioners. Treatment for impaction is a complex procedure. During embryogenesis, the ridged skin and teeth develop from the same layer,. hence, suggesting that the genetic information in the genome is dissipated during this period, and any disturbance affecting tooth development and structure will be simultaneously reflected through change in dermatoglyphic patterns. This study aims to analyse the correlation between dermatoglyphics pattern variations and impacted teeth. Settings and Design: 100 patients, 50 impacted and 50 healthy patients, were selected who are attending to the department of oral medicine and radiology between the age group of 18-40 years. Methods and Materials: The fingerprints of both the hands were obtained using the duplicating ink pad. The fingertip patterns were analysed according to the classical method, and configurational types were classified according to the topological method. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 20.0 and the test of proportion and Chi-square test was used for the analysis. Results: Whorl type of fingerprints were observed more in impacted teeth patients whereas loop type of fingerprints was observed more in healthy patients. Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between impacted teeth and Dermatoglyphics and it can be used as a predilection marker.

Keywords: Dermatoglyphics, fingerprints, impacted teeth


How to cite this article:
V Ramesh D N, Thriveni R, Rachel BB, Manshi P, Byatnal A, Kempwade P. Comparative study to analyse the correlation between dermatoglyphics and impacted teeth. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2020;32:145-8

How to cite this URL:
V Ramesh D N, Thriveni R, Rachel BB, Manshi P, Byatnal A, Kempwade P. Comparative study to analyse the correlation between dermatoglyphics and impacted teeth. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Jul 15];32:145-8. Available from: http://www.jiaomr.in/text.asp?2020/32/2/145/288132




   Introduction Top


The study of ridge patterns in scientific terms is known as “Dermatoglyphics”. This term was coined by Harold Cummins in 1926.[1] Widespread interest in epidermal ridges developed only in the last few decades when it became apparent that many patients with chromosomal aberrations had unusual ridge formations and also recently among the patients with non–chromosomal genetic disorders and other diseases whose etiology may be influenced directly or indirectly by genetic inheritance also reflected by the unusual ridge formations.[2],[3] Finger and palm prints are formed during the 6-7th week of the embryonic period and are completed after 10-20 weeks of gestation.[4] Dermatoglyphic variable characteristics are not duplicated in other people, even in monozygotic twins or even in the same person, from location to location. Abnormalities in these areas are influenced by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors, but only when the combined factors exceed a certain level, can these abnormalities be expected to appear.[2]

Many diseases are known to be caused by an abnormality of genes. Whenever there is any abnormality in the genetic makeup of parents, it is inherited to the children and is reflected in the dermatoglyphic pattern.[5] The use of these patterns as a potential diagnostic tool in various pathologies of the oral cavity prove to be a useful tool for preliminary investigations in those conditions with a suspected genetic base [6]. The present study was aimed to analyse the correlation between Dermatoglyphics and impacted teeth.


   Methods Top


This case-control study was undertaken in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology in 6 months. 100 patients between the age group of 18-40 years, reported the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were selected randomly following a simple random sampling technique.. Written informed consents were obtained and were informed regarding the study to be carried out and assured that handprints will not be used for any purpose other than the present study. We divided 100 patients into 50 impacted teeth group and 50 were without the impacted teeth group.

Selection criteria

In this study, to avoid bias, we used a single blinding technique where patients were unaware of whether they belong to the case group or control group.

Inclusion criteria

  • Patients who are diagnosed with impacted teeth clinically and radiographically around the age group of 18-40 years.
  • Patients who are not diagnosed with any impacted teeth clinically and radiographically around the age group of 18-40 years.


Exclusion criteria

Patients with any history of

  • Diabetes,
  • Cardiovascular disease,
  • Asthma,
  • Periodontitis,
  • Cleft lip and palate,
  • Potentially malignant disorders like OSMF, Leukoplakia.


Materials used: Mouth mirror and probe, duplicating ink, gauze pads, A4 size paper, magnifying glass [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Materials used for the study

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Method of collection of data

The hands of the patient were scrubbed thoroughly and blot dried. The duplicating ink was dispensed in a pea-sized amount for each hand and spread to the fingers with the help of a gauze pack. The patient was instructed to place all the fingers apart on a sheet of paper. Light pressure was applied over all the fingers to ensure proper recording of prints followed by asking the patient to cleanse their hands with soap and water. Recording of fingerprints was done by a magnifying glass. Individual finger prints of all the fingers of both the hands were recorded for different types of fingerprint patterns [Figure 2]. The most common fingerprint pattern is Loop type, Whorl type, Arch type, and Tented arch type.
Figure 2: Recording finger prints

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Statistical analysis

Data were entered in the MS Excel sheet and consequently analysed by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0 and the test of proportion and Chi-square test was used for analysis.


   Results Top


Results obtained revealed in impacted teeth group loop pattern was observed in 278(55.6%), whorl pattern in 179(35.8%), arch pattern in 43(8.6%) tented arch pattern in 0(0%) patients, whereas in the control group, loop pattern was observed in 315(63%), whorl pattern in 133(26.6%), arch pattern in 52(10.4%) and tented arch pattern in 0 [Table 1] and [Figure 3]. Comparison of right and left-hand fingerprints in both the groups were evaluated. [Table 2] and [Table 3], [Figure 4] and [Figure 5]. When compared with both the groups, impacted teeth group reveals a greater number of whorl patterns than control, whereas control group had a greater number of loop and arch patterns. The results for both the impacted teeth and control group in both right and left are statistically highly significant with P value 0.006.
Table 1: Comparison of different types of patterns in between impacted and control group

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Figure 3: Comparison of different type of patterns in between impacted and control group

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Table 2: Comparison of type of patterns of right hand on both the groups

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Table 3: Comparison of type of patterns of left hand on both the groups

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Figure 4: Comparison of type of patterns of right hand on both the groups

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Figure 5: Comparison of type of patterns of left hand on both the groups

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The study results revealed the occurrence of whorl patterns were observed more on the 4th (ring) and 2nd (index) fingers [right] in impacted teeth subjects, whereas ulnar loops in the impacted-free subjects were observed on the 5th (little) finger and arch pattern in 2nd (index) finger [left].


   Discussion Top


The ancient Palmistry/Chiromancy/Chirology is the claim of characterization and foretelling the future through the study of the palm is thus abolished from the popular image of the fortune teller uttering mysterious incantations in a secret language because of many conflicting interpretations as well as lack of empirical support.[7] Several thousand years ago palmistry was introduced into India and being practiced widely. After several decades of scientific research, the hand is recognized as a powerful tool in the diagnosis of psychological, medical, and genetic conditions.[8] The word 'Dermatoglyphics' comes from two Greek words (derma, skin and glyph, carve) and refers to the epidermal skin ridge formations which appear on the fingers, palms of the hands, and soles of the feet.[1]

Although dermatoglyphics has been a useful tool in understanding basic questions in biology, medicine and genetics.[9] However, in the world of dentistry, it is still at infancy where the corelation of dental conditions with that of dermatoglyphic patterns is done. Recently, recognition of irregular fingerprints among patients with periodontitis, dental caries, and certain types of congenital anomalies like cleft lip and palate has drawn the attention of investigators to the field of dental dermatoglyphics.[10]

In the early stages of fetal development, the dermal ridges differentiate.. These ridges were always genetically determined and were also changed depending on the environmental factors.[11] 10 weeks of gestation was the time when the fetal pads start the development process and continues until the end of the 24th week of intrauterine development. From the 11-14th week, the development is unaffected by any environmental factors and thus highlights the importance of studying the ridges in its unique way. This shows as a marker for each one's identification and to know the developmental anomalies or the uterine defects during the early stages of pregnancy itself. Therefore, both genetic and the environment are too considered as an important fact in this aspect. Nowadays, dermatoglyphics has developed for the research field to help and detect medical problems such as congenital anomaly and helps us to detect the in-utero dental anomalies.[12] The primaryuse of dermatoglyphics in the medical and dental fraternity is the most upcoming for the detection of potential cases such as oral clefts, dental impaction, and caries for early detection and prevention.[13]

In the present study the dermatoglyphic findings of the impacted teeth group was found to be higher with a whorl pattern. This study was in contrary to the only study which was conducted by Deepak Narang et al. in 2016 to test the usefulness of dermatoglyphics as a predilection marker for impacted teeth, they concluded that impacted teeth group was found higher with loop pattern whereas whorl and arch pattern is higher in the control group and significant correlation between impacted and dermatoglyphics. This could be because of the lesser sample size selection.

According to the obtained results, it hints that ridge formation as a marker was influenced by genetic differences. It also shows the genetic association between dental impaction and dermatoglyphic patterns.[13]


   Summary Top


According to the present study, whorl pattern fingerprints are observed in patients will be with a high risk of developing impacted teeth. But this is in contrary to the study conducted by Deepak Narang et al. which could be because of the lesser sample size. The occurrence of whorl patterns was observed more on the 4th (ring) and 2nd (index) fingers [right] in Impacted teeth subjects, whereas ulnar loops in the impacted-free subjects were observed on the 5th (little) finger and arch pattern in 2nd (index) finger [left]. As per our knowledge, this was the first study where the result showed 4th and 2nd finger is showing whorl pattern in impacted teeth. Further studies with a larger sample size are required to prove our results.


   Conclusion Top


To conclude, based on the obtained results there is a significant correlation between impacted teeth and Dermatoglyphics and it hints that the formation of fingerprints as a marker was influenced by genetic differences. As fingerprints are formed during vital stages of fetal development, dermatoglyphic studies are in a unique position to test the effect of the environment on early growth. Lesser time and cost requirements make dermatoglyphics an easy alternative for much preferred but expensive DNA testing. Dermatoglyphics studies are reliable, non-invasive investigations which have good patient compliance. Thus the study shows the genetic association between dental impaction and dermatoglyphic patterns.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Ethical considerations

Before starting the study, ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical committee with registration number 489/2017-18.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Karthick, Masthan KMK, Babu NA, Krupaa RJ, Anitha N. Dermatoglyphics-A review. Biomed Pharmacol J 2015;8:417-20.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Venkatesh E, Bagewadi A, Keluskar V, Shetti A. Palmar dermatoglyphics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2008;20:94-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
  [Full text]  
3.
Kiran K, Rai K, Hegde AM. Dermatoglyphics as a noninvasive diagnostic tool in predicting mental retardation. J Int Oral Health 2010;2:95-100.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sharma A, Somani R. Dermatoglyphic interpretation of dental caries and its correlation to salivary bacteria interactions: Anin vivo study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2009;27:17-21.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
5.
Walker JFA. Sex linked recessive finger print pattern. J Hered 1964:32:279-80.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Madhura MG. Dermatoglyphics in oral diseases – A review. Int J Cur Res Rev 2015;7:72-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Mathew L, Hegde AM, Rai K. Dermatoglyphic peculiarities in children with oral clefts. J Indian SocPedodPrev Dent 2005;23:179-82.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Schaumann B, Alter M. Dermatoglyphic pattern configurations. In Dermatoglyphics in medical disorders 1976 (pp. 27-87). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Ramani P, Abhilash PR, Sherlin HJ, Anuja N, Premkumar P, Chandrasekar T, et al. Conventional dermatoglyphics-Revived concept: A review. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2011;2:446-58.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Prabhu N, Issrani R, Mathur S, Mishra G, Sinha S. Dermatoglyphics in health and diseases: A review. J Res Adv Dent 2014;3:20-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Cummins H. The topographic history of the volar pads (Walking pada; Tastballen) in the human embryo. Contrib Embryol. 1929;20:103-26.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Atasu M. Dermatoglyphic findings in dental caries: A preliminary report. J Clin Pediatric Dent 1998;22:147-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Narang D, Das A, Kumar P, Sahani M, Tripathi V, Sur J, et al. Dermatoglyphics (finger prints) as predilection marker for impacted teeth: A randomized blind trial. Int J Bioassays 2016;5:4851-7.  Back to cited text no. 13
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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