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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 398-401

Craniometric measurement by jug handle view: An aid for gender determination


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati Dental College, Faizabad Road, Tiwari Ganj, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Saraswati Dental College, Faizabad Road, Tiwari Ganj, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission26-Sep-2018
Date of Acceptance15-Oct-2018
Date of Web Publication17-Jan-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Neha Chaturvedi
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati Dental College Faizabad Road, Tiwari Ganj, Lucknow - 227 105, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_121_18

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   Abstract 


Introduction: Dental identification can be done on the basis of “sexual dimorphism,” which refers to the differences in size, stature and appearance of males and females. The most reliable bony structures for sex determinations are pelvis and skull. Zygomatic arch and vault area as being part of skull can be considered most reliable and accurate for their objectivity and reproducibility. Among the various skull radiographs, jug handle radiograph provides the best view of zygomatic arches and vault area. Hence the present study has been undertaken to measure bizygomatic and intervault distance on the jug handle radiograph for gender determination. Aim and Objectives:(i) To assess the efficacy and reliability of craniometric measurement using bizygomatic distance for gender determination. (ii) To assess the efficacy and reliability of craniometric measurement using intervault distance for gender determination. (iii) To determine the most appropriate and reliable craniometric method for gender determination among bizygomatic and intervault distance. Methodology: Sixty individuals (30 males and 30 females) between age group of 18 to 25 years were included in the study. Jug handle radiographs were taken under standardized manner. Bizygomatic and inter vault distances were measured, and the results obtained were later subjected to statistical evaluation (independent Student's t-test). Result: The average bizygomatic distance of male was found to be 72.594 and for female was 65.3583, and intervault distance for male was 63.8693 and for female were 59.664, which was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: It was observed that males have more bizygomatic distance and intervault distance when compared to females. Also, bizygomatic distance gave better result as compare to intervault distance. Thus, based on the observations from the present study we can conclude that craniometric measurement can be considered as a reliable tool for gender determination.

Keywords: Bizygomatic distance, craniometric, forensic anthropology, forensic dentistry, intervault distance, zygomatic arches


How to cite this article:
Chandra S, Chaturvedi N, Sah K, Sinha S, Hamza A. Craniometric measurement by jug handle view: An aid for gender determination. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2018;30:398-401

How to cite this URL:
Chandra S, Chaturvedi N, Sah K, Sinha S, Hamza A. Craniometric measurement by jug handle view: An aid for gender determination. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Jun 26];30:398-401. Available from: http://www.jiaomr.in/text.asp?2018/30/4/398/250243




   Introduction Top


A person's individuality is important for legal as well as for humanitarian purpose. Gender determination is one of the major parameter used for an identification of an individual. Correct gender determination regulates the pool of missing persons to just one-half of the population.[1],[2] Several morphological and metric analysis methods have been used for gender determination from skeletal using skull and mandible, such as frontal eminences, mastoid process, nasion, mandibular ramus and height, etc.[3] Radiographs have long been in use for assistance in forensic odontology, as they are simple, nondestructive, comparatively easy, and can be obtained in both living and decreased.[4],[5],[6]

Among the various skull radiographs, jug handle radiograph, which is a modification of the submentovertexview, provides the best view of zygomatic arches and vault area.

A lot of anthrometric studies have been done using craniometric analysis but literature reveals that very few studies have been undertaken to determine gender using bizygomatic distance and intervault distance, both on dry skull and on radiographs. Hence the present study has been undertaken to assess the efficacy and reliability of bizygomatic and intervault distance for gender determination.


   Methodology Top


The study group comprises of patients visiting the institute for routine dental examination and treatment.

Inclusion criteria

  • Jug handle radiograph showing bilateral presence of zygomatic arch and vault area.
  • Subjects with normal growth, development and dental conditions.
  • Radiographs of diagnostic quality.


Exclusion criteria

  • Developmental anomalies of the facial bones.
  • Previous history of any surgery or trauma.
  • Presence of any pathologies.


Sixty individuals (30 males and 30 females), between age group of 18 and 25 years were included in the study. The ethical clearance from the IRDC & IHEC was taken prior to initiate this study, and a written consent in patient's own language were taken for every subject after explaining the nature of the study. Jug handle radiograph was taken by Kodak 8000C digital panoramic and cephalometric machine (70 kVp and 6.3 mA). The head of the subject was centered on the receptor and tipped back as far as possible so that the vertex of the skull touches the cassette. The midsagittal plane was kept perpendicular to the plane of the film and the radiographic baseline parallel to the film. Exposure was made under adequate radiation protection measures [Figure 1]. Using the Universal Desktop Ruler software bizygomatic and inter vault distances were measured [Figure 2] and [Figure 3] and expressed in linear millimetres. The obtained results were later subjected to statistical evaluation (independent Student's t-test).
Figure 1: Patient positioning for modification of submentovertexview (jug handle view)

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Figure 2: Bizygomatic distance

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Figure 3: Intervault distance

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The statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version (2015) IBM Corporations statistical analysis software and independent Student's t-test was used for statistical evaluation.


   Results Top


The mean value of bizygomatic distance for male was 72.594 ± 5.03 and for female was 65.3583 ± 3.06 along with P value <0.001 and t-value of 6.727. For inter vault distance the mean value for male was 63.8693 ± 4.72 and for female was 59.664 ± 3.92, with t-value 3.75 and P value <0.001, which was found to be statistically significant for both the dimensions [Table 1] and Graph 1].
Table 1: Predicted gender

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Assessment of gender by bizygomatic distance between males and females was found to be more accurate (7.2357) when compared to inter vault distance (4.2053).


   Discussion Top


Accurate determination of sex from the human skull is of great importance in anthropologic and forensic investigations. The pelvis and the skull are the most reliable bones for sex determination.[7],[8],[9] Dentofacial radiography also aids in the field of forensic odontology. Comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs is one of the cornerstones of positive identification of human remains.[10],[11],[12]

In the present study, 60 subjects were randomly selected (30 males and 30 females), with age criteria between 18 and 25 years, and jug handle radiograph was taken for determination of sexual dimorphism through bizygomatic distance and intervault distance. Data obtained was subjected to stastitistical analysis and it was observed that bizygomatic distance for male was 72.594 ± 5.03 and for female was 65.3583 ± 3.06 along with P value <0.001 and t- value of 6.727, stating that males have more bizygomatic distance than females. For inter vault distance the mean value for male was 63.8693 ± 4.72 and for female was 59.664 ± 3.92 with P value <0.001 and t-value 3.75, again stating that the males have more inter vault distance than females.

However, in the study conducted by Jehan et al., on 191 subjects, including 106 males and 85 females, using computed tomography of head and paranasal sinus. Bizygomatic distance, AP diameter and width of the maxillary sinus and intermaxillary distance was calculated to determine sexual dimorphism. Statistically significant difference with P < 0.0001 was observed in the bizygomatic distance with mean ± SD of 9.55 ± 0.41 cm for male and 9.262 ± 0.52 for female.[11]

Moreover, the study conducted by Oliveira et al. on 100 human skulls (50 males and 50 females) of known gender and age under 22 years at the time of death. Measurements taken were: Nasion-Lambda (Na-L); Nasion-Basion (Na-Ba); Glabella- Lambda (G-L); Glabella-Inion (G-I); Glabella-Bregma (G-Br); Basion-Lambda (Ba-L); Basion-Bregma (Ba-Br); Zygion-Zygion (Zy-Zy); Euryon-Euryon (Eu-Eu); Mastoid-Mastoid (M-M), and the most dimorphic measurement was the bizygomatic diameter among all parameters used.[7] Also, Mahakkanukrauh et al. took 200 Thai dried skulls (100 males and 100 females) of known gender, with the mean age of 65.65 years for males and 66.81 years for females. A total of 25 standard cranial measurements were examined on the samples, with result giving 90.6% accuracy (91.1% in male and 90.0% in female) which can provide valuable application when used in sex determination from skull in a Thai population.[13]

Another study conducted by Kraniot et al. on 178 well-preserved, adult skulls (90 males and 88 females) of Cretan origin with mean age for men as 68.94 and 73.21 for females, and it was observed that bizygomatic breadth is the most discriminatory single dimension and can provide an accuracy rate of 82%.[14]


   Conclusion Top


Based on the observations from the present study we can conclude that bizygomatic distance and inter vault distance are useful and can aid in gender determination. However, bizygomatic distance is a more reliable parameter to determine gender as compare to intervault distance. Further research should be aimed at, with a larger sample size to further acknowledge the accuracy of our observations.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Financial & Infrastructural support from Saraswati Dental College, Lucknow.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Singh J, Gupta KD, Malhotra G. Sex determination using cheiloscopy & mandibular canine index as a tool in forensic dentistry. J Forensic Dent Sci 2012;4:70-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
2.
Narang RS, Manchanda AS, Singh B. Sex assessment by molar odontometrics in North India. J Forensic Dent Sci 2015;7:54-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.
Shafer WG, Hine MK, Levy BM. Shafer's Textbook of Oral Pathology. 5th ed. Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier; 2005:889-90.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kumar R, Athota A, Rastogi T, Karumuri SK. Forensic radiology: An emerging tool in identification. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2015;27:416-22.  Back to cited text no. 4
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Rehani S, Chandrashekhar C, Radhakrishnan R. The role of radiography in forensic dental practice. Indian J Dent Adv 2011;3:413-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Pallagatti S, Sheikh S, Aggarwal A, Singh R, Gupta D, Kaur A. Maxillofacial imaging: An emerging tool in forensic science. J Forensic Res 2011;2:134.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Fortes de Oliveira O, Lima Ribeiro Tinoco R, Daruge Júnior E, Silveira Dias Terada AS, Alves da Silva RH, ParanhosLR. Sexual dimorphism in Brazilian human skulls: Discriminant function analysis. J Forensic Odontostomatol 2012;30:26-33.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Patil KR, Mody RN. Determination of sex by discriminant function analysis and stature by regression analysis: A lateral cephalometric study. Forensic Sci Int 2005;147:175-80.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Iscan MY. Forensic anthropology of sex and body size. Forensic Sci Int 2005;147:107-12.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Shiva Kumar B, Deepthi BC. A digital radiographic study for gender prediction using mandibular Indices. Int J Sci Res (IJSR) 2016;5:1490-93.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Jehan M, Bhadkari V, Trivedi A, Sharma SK. Sexual dimorphism of bizygomatic distance & maxillary sinus using CT scan. IOSR JDental MedSci 2014;13:91-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Steyn M, Iscan MY. Sexual dimorphism in the crania and mandibles of South Africa whites. Forensic Sci Int 1998;98:9-16.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Mahakkanukrauh P, Sinthubua A, Prasitwattanaseree S, Ruengdit S, Singsuwan P, Praneatpolgrang S,et al. Craniometric study for sex determination in a Thai population. Anat Cell Biol 2015;48:275-83.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Kranioti EF, Iscan MY, Michalodimitrakis M. Craniometric analysis of the modern Cretan population. Forensic Sci Int 2008;180:110.e1-5.  Back to cited text no. 14
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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