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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 367-371

Evaluation of human papillomavirus as an independent risk factor in known patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemistry

1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sri Aurobindo College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati Dental College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Dentistry, Saraswati Medical College, Unnao, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Siddharth K Singh
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati Dental College, 233 Tiwari Ganj, Faizabad Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_122_18

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Introduction: Oral cancer (OC), ever since its discovery has not failed to claim lives of many. However, in between 1960s and 1980s, some astonishing trends started to emerge pertaining to OC, which almost entirely changed the face of this ailment. Almost a fourfold ascent in the number of patients diagnosed with OC was seen in the age group of 30–39 years! Authors, after several studies and meticulous observations got a clear picture of the phenomenal changes. These changes, which were almost entirely attributed to a rise of human papillomavirus (HPV) after few years became a global issue and did not leave Asian countries, including India unscathed. Rigorous studies were conducted in India, although each one yielded different and somewhat contrasting results. While some authors could not demonstrate a single OC case with HPV, some concluded otherwise. Aims: 1. To identify the role of HPV as an independent risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). 2. To calculate the prevalence of HPV in local population. Settings and Design: Biopsy specimens of 100 patients were analyzed in the study. They were tested for the presence of surrogate marker p16 to predict the involvement of HPV. Materials and Methods: OC samples with already proven histopathological diagnosis of (of all grades) without habits were taken as cases and were subjected to immunohistochemistry. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were taken in use along with inferential statistics. Results: Out of 100 patients, 6 patients showed positive results for the presence of p16 or HPV. The P value was P = 0.012, which was statistically significant. Conclusions: It can be concluded that despite the absence of any other risk factors, HPV can result in OSCC even in a developing and conservative nation like India.

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