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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 271-274

Variations in dermatoglyphic patterns in oral submucous fibrosis and leukoplakia patients with and without adverse oral habits


1 Department of Dentistry, LN Medical College and Hospital, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral Medicine Radiology, Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
3 Department of Orthodontics, Army Dental Centre (R & R), New Delhi, India
4 Department of Orthodontics, Peoples College of Dental Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Submission18-May-2018
Date of Acceptance16-Jul-2018
Date of Web Publication18-Oct-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rajkumar Maurya
Department of Orthodontics, Army Dental Centre (R & R), New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_85_18

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   Abstract 


Introduction: The present study was conducted to determine the comparative variations in dermatoglyphic patterns in patients without oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and leukoplakia and those having lesions, as well as to predict the occurrence of these diseases and initiate preventive measures in these high-risk patients. Materials and Methods: Dermatoglyphic patterns were collected from randomly selected 120 patients using 3M™ CSD200i. Single-digit Optical Scanner (3M™, Canada, 2015) with automatic capture mechanism was applied to capture finger prints of all the 10 fingers of patients, who were divided in control and test group with respective subgroups of leukoplakia and OSMF. Qualitative analysis of dermatoglyphic patterns in the different groups showed loops, arches, and whorls. Results: The collected data was subjected to analysis using Chi-square test for comparison between the groups; significant difference in P value was observed on comparison between dermatoglyphic patterns in patients with leukoplakia and those with adverse oral habits but without oral lesions (P = 0.00005), patients with OSMF and individuals with adverse oral habits but without oral lesions (P = 0.03), patients with OSMF and individuals without adverse oral habits and without oral lesions (P = 0.004), leukoplakia and OSMF (P = 0.007). Quantitative analysis including total finger ridge count was done by counting the number of ridges in all 10 fingers for all the patients in all the groups. Conclusion: The present study showed weak association in the loop pattern of patients with OSMF than leukoplakia, whorl pattern with adverse oral habits, without oral lesions, and arch pattern with OSMF. More controlled prospective trials are needed to affirm the association, if any, at larger homogeneous Indian sample in future to validate the finding.

Keywords: Dermatoglyphic, total finger ridge count, triradus


How to cite this article:
Awasthy D, Maheshwari VJ, Maurya R, Shukla C. Variations in dermatoglyphic patterns in oral submucous fibrosis and leukoplakia patients with and without adverse oral habits. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2018;30:271-4

How to cite this URL:
Awasthy D, Maheshwari VJ, Maurya R, Shukla C. Variations in dermatoglyphic patterns in oral submucous fibrosis and leukoplakia patients with and without adverse oral habits. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Jun 19];30:271-4. Available from: http://www.jiaomr.in/text.asp?2018/30/3/271/243669




   Introduction Top


Knowledge of dermatoglyphic patterns can avoid trigger factors in individuals who are prone to develop such lesions. The relevance of dermatoglyphics is not for diagnosis, but for prevention, by predicting a disease, and not for defining an existing disease, but for identification of people with the genetic predisposition to develop certain diseases.[1] Dermatoglyphics can be considered as genetic markers to detect individuals genetically predisposed to this condition.

Dermatoglyphics is a carving in the skin that is a furrow or fold.[2] In 1926, Dr. Harold Cummins and Midlo termed the word “dermatoglyphics.” It is defined as the study of fine patterned dermal ridges on digits, palms, and soles.[2] It comprises elaborate patterns present on the surface of the skin in man and other mammals.[3] Epidermal ridges remain unchanged from fetal development throughout life.[3],[4]

Dermatoglyphic patterns on fingertips are divided into the three groups – arches, loops, and whorls.[4] The three basic landmarks found on the fingertip patterns are triradii, cores, and radiant.[5] Ridges are counted between two digital triradii,[5] whereas total ridge count is the sum of the ridge counts for all 10 fingers.[6] This study was undertaken to study dermatoglyphic patterns in individuals with oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), so that individuals with habits and similar patterns can be identified at the earliest and preventive measures can be instituted in such susceptible individuals to prevent the occurrence of oral leukoplakia and OSMF.

Hence, this study aimed at comparing the variations in dermatoglyphic patterns in patients having no adverse habit, those having adverse habit without OSMF and leukoplakia, and those having lesions; we also aimed to predict the occurrence of these diseases (OSMF and leukoplakia) and to initiate preventive measures in these high risk group subjects.


   Materials and Methods Top


The present study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology in Dental College of Central India. The study was performed to evaluate the fingertip patterns among patients with leukoplakia and OSMF and comparison of fingertip patterns among individuals with adverse oral habits, without oral lesions, and individuals without adverse oral habits and without oral lesions were made. Based on this, a sample size of 120 (30 in each group) was decided. The patients were selected randomly from those who visited the outpatient department and were divided into control and study groups.

Control group (Group 1)

  • Group 1A: 30 patients without any adverse oral habits and without oral lesions
  • Group 1B: 30 patients with adverse oral habit of chewing mixture of pan masala and tobacco with no lesion


Study group (Group 2)

  • Group 2A: 30 patients with adverse oral habit of chewing mixture of pan masala and tobacco and having OSMF
  • Group 2B: 30 patients with adverse oral habit of chewing mixture of pan masala and tobacco and having leukoplakia.


Inclusion criteria

  1. Patients without any adverse oral habits
  2. Patients with adverse oral habit of chewing mixture of pan masala and tobacco with no lesion
  3. Patients with adverse oral habit of chewing mixture of pan masala and tobacco and having OSMF
  4. Patients with adverse oral habit of chewing mixture of pan masala and tobacco and having leukoplakia.


Exclusion criteria

  1. Patients undergoing treatment for OSMF and leukoplakia
  2. Patients having habits other than chewing mixture of pan masala and tobacco
  3. Patients with other mucosal lesions such as oral malignancy, lichen planus, and candidiasis
  4. Patients suspected of having any syndrome or abnormalities
  5. Patients giving history of systemic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases, bronchial asthma, epilepsy, and anemia.


A detailed case history with thorough clinical examination of premalignant lesions and conditions (leukoplakia and OSMF) and diagnosis was made on the basis of their clinical features and their association with supporting etiological factors. Dermatoglyphic patterns were collected using 3M™ CSD200i Single-digit Optical Scanner (3M, Canada) manufactured in Canada, 2015, works with automatic capture mechanism was applied to capture the fingerprints of all the 10 fingers of the patients.

A green light is projected from the sensor on which ridged surface finger is gently placed until the light disappears and shows the obtained image of dermatoglyphic pattern on the computer's screen on which the software is installed. Once the satisfactory prints were obtained of the fingers, the observations were as follows:

Dermatoglyphic patterns are loop: double loop, radial loop, ulnar loop; arch: simple arch and tented arch; whorl: simple whorl and compound whorl.[4] Triradus is the meeting point of three ridges that form angles at 120° with one another could be absent or more than two in a finger. Triradus will be 0 for arch pattern as arch count is made from the triradus and is present at the centre. Finger ridge count is done by counting the number of ridges from the core to triradius [Figure 1]. There can be two triradii in a finger. The one with the highest ridge count is counted for finger ridge count. Total finger ridge count is obtained by summing the finger ridge count of all 10 fingers.[5]
Figure 1: Dermatogplyphics pattern

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Qualitative analysis

Fingertip print patterns were classified as arches, loops, and whorls. Patterns on all the 10 fingers in both hands were analyzed. In every subject, the total number of loop count, arch count, and whorl count of all 10 fingers were made. The same was done with patients in all the groups. The percentage of pattern frequency and separately the mean was calculated for the entire group and comparison was made between the groups.[5]

Quantitative analysis

Finger ridge count was calculated in all 10 fingers in every patient. The count was done by counting ridges between the triradus and the core. Finger ridge count could be 0 in cases where triradius was absent.

Total finger ridge count was calculated for all 10 fingers and derived by adding the ridge counts on all 10 fingers. Only the larger count was used on those digits with more than one ridge count. The mean was taken of total finger ridge count separately for all groups and comparison was made between them.[5],[6]

Data were analyzed and evaluated using SPPS ver 21 (IBM, USA). The collected data was subjected to analysis using Chi-square test for comparison between the groups with P value of >0.05.


   Results Top


Qualitative analysis of dermatoglyphic patterns in the different groups shows loops, arches, and whorls [Table 1]. The collected data was subjected to analysis using Chi-square test for comparison between the groups, significant difference in P value was observed on comparison between dermatoglyphic patterns in patients with leukoplakia and individuals with adverse oral habits but without oral lesions (P = 0.00005), patients with OSMF and individuals with adverse oral habits but without oral lesions (P = 0.03), patients with OSMF and individuals without adverse oral habits and without oral lesions (P = 0.004), leukoplakia and OSMF (P = 0.007). Quantitative analysis: Total finger ridge count was done by counting the number of ridges in all 10 fingers for all the patients in all the groups. Student's t-test was applied to derive the mean and standard deviation and the P value in quantitative analysis [Table 2].
Table 1: Descriptive statistics of dermatoglyphic patterns in subjects in all the groups

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Table 2: Chi-square test for comparison between dermatoglyphic patterns in patients in all the groups

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   Discussion Top


This study intends to establish dermatoglyphics as an advancing tool for a prediagnosis in premalignant lesions in patients with adverse oral habits who are susceptible for developing oral lesions associated with known etiology. Not all individuals with adverse oral habits develop premalignant lesions, but occurrence of premalignant lesions are genetically determined.

The dermatoglyphic analysis proves itself as a useful window for diagnosis.[2] The present study was conducted to predict occurrence of these diseases, i.e., OSMF and leukoplakia and to initiate preventive measures in these high-risk group subjects. The inference was drawn from the present study is that the loop pattern is commonly found in all the groups but there was a mild rise in the frequency of occurrence of loops in pathologic conditions, i.e., OSMF and leukoplakia.

Munishwar and co-workers reported that the loop pattern was more in healthy group than in patients of OSMF and gutka chewers.[7] The present study showed that the loop pattern is frequently observed in patients with OSMF than leukoplakia. However, loop is a common pattern in subjects in all the groups. Similalry, whorl pattern is highest in patients with adverse oral habits without oral lesions. Arch pattern increases in subjects with OSMF. In the study by Jatti, increase in frequency of arches in leukoplakia and OSMF and total finger ridge count was also increased in leukoplakia than in control.[8] However, Tamgire found that a decline in patterns of whorls OSMF was seen than in gutka chewers.[9]

The present study corroborated the findings of the previous study in Indian population and found that occurrence of premalignant lesions are genetically determined.[10],[11],[12] Tendency of development of OSMF and leukoplakia are present in individuals who are exposed to the carcinogens or individuals who have adverse oral habits, However, the study can be expanded further under prospective controlled environment by increasing sample size in more homogenous population to determine further correlation and association to avoid future malignancy related morbidity.


   Conclusion Top


Present study showed weak association in the loop pattern of patients with OSMF than leukoplakia, Whorl pattern with adverse oral habits, without oral lesions, and arch pattern with OSMF. More controlled prospective trials are needed to affirm the association, if any, at larger homogeneous Indian sample in future to validate the finding.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Kumar S, Khandakurti S, Saxena V, Sachdev A. A dermatoglyphic study in oral submucous fibrosis patients. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2014;26:269-73.  Back to cited text no. 1
  [Full text]  
2.
Venkates E, Bagewadi A, Keluskar V. Palmar dermatoglyphics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2008;20:94-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
David M, Sinha P. Dermatoglyphic patterns in subjects with potentially malignant disorders and oral carcinoma. J Adv Clin Res Insights 2015;2:7-11.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Prabhu N, Issrani R, Mathur S, Mishra G. Dermatoglyphics in Health and Oral Diseases-A Review. JSM Dent 2014;2:1044-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ramani P, Abhilash PR, Sherlin HJ, Anuja N, Premkumar P, Chandrashekhar T, et al. Conventional dermatoglyphics- Revived concept: A Review. Int J Pharma BioSci 2011;2:446-58.   Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Mendenhall G. Fingerprint Ridge Count: A polygenic trait. Am Biol Teacher 1989;51:203-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Munishwar P, Thiyam B, Veerabhadrappa R, Tyagi D, Shah S. Qualitative analysis of dermatoglyphics in oral submucous fibrosis. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2015;27:207-12.  Back to cited text no. 7
  [Full text]  
8.
Jatti D, Kantraj Y, Nagaraju R. Role of dermatoglyphics in malignant and potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity: A cross-sectional study. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2014;26;379-84.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Tamgire D, Fulzele K, Chimurkar K. Qualitative Dermatoglyphic Analysis of Finger Tip Patterns In Patients Of Oral Sub Mucous Fibrosis. J Dent Med Sci 2013;6:24-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Shetty P, Shamla A, Murali R. Dermatoglyphics as a genetic marker for oral submucous fibrosis: A cross-sectional study. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dentist 2016;14:41-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Dutta N. Comparison of finger print Patterns in Patients with and without Oral Submucosis Fibrosis - A Dermatoglyphics study. Int J Contemp Med Res 2016;3:1172-3.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Lakshmi J. A Short Review on Dermatoglyphics. Pharm Sci Res 2014;6:200-2.  Back to cited text no. 12
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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