Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Search Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 1188
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
CASE REPORT
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 425-427

Resourcefulness of cone beam computed sialography in detection of multiple radiolucent sialoliths: A case report


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sree Mookambika Institute of Dental Sciences, Kulasekaram, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Hazaribag College of Dental Sciences, Hazaribag, Jharkhand, India

Date of Submission05-Nov-2014
Date of Acceptance07-Apr-2015
Date of Web Publication22-Apr-2015

Correspondence Address:
Indu Krishna
Indeevaram, TC 10/693, Edayilakonam, Mannanthala, Trivandrum - 695 015, Kerala
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-1363.155635

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Obstructive conditions of the salivary glands are common and may necessitate imaging of the gland for the purpose of diagnosis and management. Sialography is considered the gold standard for examining obstructive conditions of the parotid and submandibular glands but is largely influenced by the imaging technique to which it is coupled. The aim of this paper is to discuss the importance of cone beam computed sialography imaging which is a relatively new and very promising imaging modality in the detection of radiolucent sialoliths and to report a case of detection of radiolucent parotid sialoliths using cone beam computed sialography.

Keywords: Cone beam computed tomography, radiolucent sialolith, salivary gland, sialogram


How to cite this article:
Elenjickal TJ, Krishna I, Perumal RL, Verma S. Resourcefulness of cone beam computed sialography in detection of multiple radiolucent sialoliths: A case report. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2014;26:425-7

How to cite this URL:
Elenjickal TJ, Krishna I, Perumal RL, Verma S. Resourcefulness of cone beam computed sialography in detection of multiple radiolucent sialoliths: A case report. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 May 26];26:425-7. Available from: http://www.jiaomr.in/text.asp?2014/26/4/425/155635


   Introduction Top


Sialography is a radiographic demonstration of major salivary glands by introducing a radiopaque contrast medium into the ductal system which is an excellent modality for demonstrating ductal anatomy, presence of obstructions, strictures and also suitability of the ductal system for interventional sialographic procedures. The success of sialography is largely dependent on the imaging modality to which it is coupled. [1] Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is one of the recent imaging modalities used for head and neck, and dento-maxillofacial diagnosis which provides relatively high isotropic spatial resolution of osseous structures at a low radiation dose. [2],[3] The CBCT scanner collects volume data with a single rotation in 9-40 seconds with the help of a cone-shaped X-ray beam and two-dimensional detectors. [4]

This case report is rare because CBCT sialography is hardly conducted and there are only very few case reports in literature. This technique has proved to be highly reliable and superior to other imaging modalities in identifying non-calcified sialoliths (as in our case) which are usually difficult to detect and diagnose using even the most sophisticated imaging techniques. Combined with the advent of sialoendoscopes, previously morbid surgeries of the salivary glands can now be avoided which demonstrates the therapeutic efficacy of the technique too.


   Case Report Top


A 60-year-old female reported with a complaint of pain in the left parotid region. Patient gave a history of chronic pain since 2 years and prolonged history of occasional discomfort since early forties. She consulted a host of specialities and was diagnosed with chronic bacterial sialadenitis of left parotid. She reported with no other relevant medical history. Plain film orthopantomograph (OPG) showed no abnormality [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Cropped OPG showing restored 15, 36 and 46, missing 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28, and root stumps of 38

Click here to view


An ultrasound imaging was also performed which gave no additional value to the existing diagnosis. Sialography of the left parotid gland was performed. A conventional sialogram performed using 3 ml of Urografin 760 contrast media, which was injected by hand, did not reveal any obstruction except for a filling defect and pooling of contrast medium in one region in the OPG [Figure 2]. This prompted us to perform a 8 × 8 volume CBCT scan, which was done in the early emptying phase using a Sirona Orthophos XG-3D CBCT unit [Figure 3]. Two small filling defects were seen, one located distal to the isthmus of the Stenson's duct and the other defect was noticed in the deeper part of inferior lobe of the gland which we suspected to be two radiolucent sialoliths. Cone beam computed tomography data was displayed in Galaxis Galileos software and the sialoliths were easily demonstrable [Figure 4] and [Figure 5].
Figure 2: OPG showing filling defect and pooling of contrast medium in one region

Click here to view
Figure 3: CBCT scan of early emptying

Click here to view
Figure 4: Sialolith in deep lobe

Click here to view
Figure 5: Sialolith in the superior lobe distal to isthmus

Click here to view


The patient was referred to a head and neck surgical unit where she was posted for a guided balloon dilatation and Dormia basket retrieval of stones, which was performed under local anesthesia and fluoroscopic radiological guidance. Two small sialoliths of size 1 × 1 mm were retrieved by the basket.


   Discussion Top


Sialolithiasis is the most common salivary gland disorders in adults. It has a slight male predilection. Sialoliths usually appear in the third to sixth decade of life. The most common gland affected is submandibular gland (80%) followed by the parotid (19%) and sublingual gland (1%). They appear unilateral and are usually radiopaque (they will show up on conventional radiographs), or they can be radiolucent (where they are not visible on radiographs, although some of their effects on the gland may still be visible). Twenty percent of submandibular calculi and 40% of parotid calculi fall into the latter category. Sialolithiasis causes pain and swelling of the involved salivary gland due to the obstruction of salivary secretion. It may remain asymptomatic too. Imaging plays a very crucial role in the diagnosis of cause, extent and effects of obstruction. Salivary gland calculi can usually be detected by various methods like projection radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sialography is not indicated once a radiopaque sialolith is located, to prevent deeper displacement of the sialoliths from its current favorable position.

Sialography is the radiographic demonstration of major salivary glands by introducing a radiopaque contrast medium into their ductal system. It is useful for demonstrating ductal anatomy, presence of obstructions and strictures. The additional advantage is that the interventional sialographic procedure is in itself therapeutic as infusion of the sialographic dye causes strictural dilatation and release of occluding mucous plugs.

Cone beam computed tomography is the latest imaging modality used widely in maxillofacial radiology due to the high resolution, low radiation dose, fast scanning time and geometrically accurate images. [2],[3] The advantage of CBCT sialography is that 3D reconstruction can be performed and the ductal architecture viewed in all possible dimensions. CBCT provides useful information about measurements and location of sialoliths. Combining the benefits of the CBCT with the versatility of the sialography is then only logical and both would complement each other.

Cone beam computed tomography sialography is hardly conducted and there are only few case reports in literature. [1],[4],[5],[6],[7] Drage and Brown reported two cases in females in their sixth decade of life with classical symptoms of salivary obstruction. Their results indicated that the primary duct, secondary duct and obstruction were easily identified in both cases. [5] They also concluded that CBCT sialography delivered a radiation dose equal to fluoroscopic sialography but higher than plain image sialography. [5] Another study regarding the effective doses from CBCT examinations centered on parotid and submandibular salivary gland by Jadu et al. where 15 cm FOV was chosen in combination with exposure conditions of 80 kVp and 10 mA, concluded that they were comparable to those calculated for plain sialography. [6]

Cone beam computed tomography sialography has now emerged as a highly reliable technique for identifying both radiopaque as well as radiolucent sialoliths (as in our case) and ductal strictures, two of the most common causes of obstruction as well as differentiating normal salivary glands with secondary inflammatory changes. [4] In fact CBCT sialography has proved to be superior to other imaging modalities in identifying non-calcified sialoliths which were usually difficult to detect and diagnose using even the most sophisticated imaging techniques. [1] It is also encouraging that there is a high correlation among observers interpreting the salivary gland lesions in terms of presence of stenosis, dilatation and evagination. [1],[4]


   Conclusion Top


In obstructive salivary gland diseases, CBCT sialography is superior to conventional sialography in demonstrating the ductal system of the gland, identifying sialoliths and strictures. CBCT sialography is a very interesting field and opens up a lot of exciting possibilities in the years ahead. It is a novel technique for imaging the major salivary glands by combining the benefits of the CBCT with the versatility of the sialography. Combined with the advent of sialoendoscopes, previously morbid surgeries of the salivary glands can now be avoided.

 
   References Top

1.
Jadu FM, Lam EW. A comparative study of the diagnostic capabilities of 2D plain radiograph and 3D cone beam CT sialography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2013;42:20110319.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Miracle AC, Mukherji SK. Conebeam CT of the head and neck, part 2: Clinical applications. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2009;30:1285-92.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Scarfe WC, Farman AG, Sukovic P. Clinical applications of cone-beam computed tomography in dental practice. J Can Dent Assoc 2006;72:75-80.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Abdel-Wahed N, Amer ME, Abo-Taleb NS. Assessment of the role of cone beam computed sialography in diagnosing salivary gland lesions. Imaging Sci Dent 2013;43:17-23.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Drage NA, Brown JE. Cone beam computed sialography of sialoliths. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2009;38:301-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Jadu F, Yaffe MJ, Lam EW. A comparative study of the effective radiation doses from cone beam computed tomography and plain radiography for sialography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2010;39:257-63.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Li B, Long X, Cheng Y, Wang S. Cone beam CT sialography of Stafne bone cavity. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2011;40:519-23.  Back to cited text no. 7
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

   Abstract Introduction Case Report Discussion Conclusion Article Figures
  In this article
 References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1140    
    Printed32    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded240    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]