|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 269-273
A dermatoglyphic study in oral submucous fibrosis patients
Satish Kumar, Srinivas Kandakurti, Vasu Siddhartha Saxena, Arti Saluja Sachdev, Jyoti Gupta
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Career Postgraduate Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Date of Submission||16-Sep-2014|
|Date of Acceptance||29-Oct-2014|
|Date of Web Publication||19-Nov-2014|
P.G. Student, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Career Postgraduate Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Aims and Objectives: (1) To determine the fingerprint patterns in gutkha chewers with oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and in healthy controls without gutkha chewing habit and OSMF. (2) To observe and compare the variations of fingerprints in both these groups. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Career Postgraduate Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Lucknow, with 50 subjects divided into two groups: group A consisted of 25 clinically and histologically proven OSMF cases and group B consisted of 25 controls without gutkha chewing habit and OSMF. Fingerprints were taken using the ink method described by Cummins and Midlo. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Results: There was a marked decrease of tented arches, ulnar and radial loops, and an increase of simple whorls in OSMF subjects in comparison with normal individuals. Conclusion: Fingerprint pattern is genetically determined. Similarly, the tendency of development of OSMF in gutkha chewers is also genetically determined. An effort was made to compare the fingerprint patterns among gutkha chewers with OSMF in a small sample, which showed that there was a significant decrease of tented arches, ulnar and radial loops, and an increase of simple whorls in OSMF patients in comparison with normal individuals.
Keywords: Loops, oral submucous fibrosis, whorls
|How to cite this article:|
Kumar S, Kandakurti S, Saxena VS, Sachdev AS, Gupta J. A dermatoglyphic study in oral submucous fibrosis patients
. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2014;26:269-73
|How to cite this URL:|
Kumar S, Kandakurti S, Saxena VS, Sachdev AS, Gupta J. A dermatoglyphic study in oral submucous fibrosis patients
. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Jun 6];26:269-73. Available from: http://www.jiaomr.in/text.asp?2014/26/3/269/145002
| Introduction|| |
Dermatoglyphics is a natural "carving" in the skin that is a furrow or fold.  In 1926, Dr. Harold Cummins coined the word "dermatoglyphics". A complete system with rules for classification of fingerprints was formulated by Sir Francis Galton way back in 1892.  In certain diseases, dermatoglyphic examination is carried out as an integral part of the investigative procedure. It offers at least two major advantages as an aid to the diagnosis of medical disorders:
- The epidermal ridge patterns on the hands and soles are fully developed after birth and remain unchanged thereafter for life.
- Scanning of ridge patterns or recording their permanent impressions can be accomplished rapidly, inexpensively, and without any trauma to the patient.
Dermatoglyphic peculiarities were noted for the first time in Down's syndrome, which were published in the Lancet. Since then, a number of diseases have been correlated with dermatoglyphic peculiarities, such as schizophrenia,  pulmonary tuberculosis,  diabetes mellitus, , and hypertension.  In dentistry, the data on correlation with dermatoglyphics is less. Oral diseases such as oral cancer, bruxism, dental caries,  dental fluorosis, etc., show a characteristic dermatoglyphic pattern with a sure scientific basis which is explained by the unison of embryological origin of oral and dermatoglyphic patterns during fetal development.
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic precancerous disease of the oral mucosa characterized by inflammation and progressive accumulation of collagen fibers in the lamina propria and deeper connective tissue followed by stiffening of an otherwise yielding mucosa, resulting in difficulty in opening the mouth.  The available epidemiological evidences suggest that chewing of gutkha (areca nut) is an important risk factor for OSMF, but all gutkha chewers do not develop OSMF.  Genetic predisposition explains such individual variability. This unique genetic predisposition of diseases may be related to the dermatoglyphic pattern of an individual, which also is genetically determined. The classification of fingerpatterns according to Cummins is as follows: arch [Figure 1], tented arch [Figure 2], radial loop [Figure 3], ulnar loop [Figure 4], compound whorl [Figure 5], simple whorl [Figure 6], and double loop [Figure 7].
Aims and objectives
- To determine the fingerprint patterns in gutkha chewers with OSMF (study group, group A) and in healthy controls without gutkha chewing habit and OSMF (control group, group B)
- To observe and compare the variations of fingerprints in the study and control groups.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study group consisted of 25 clinically and histologically proven cases of OSMF selected from the outpatient department (OPD). Detailed clinical examination followed by incision biopsy was conducted in the subjects of the study group with the consent of patients. The fingerprints were taken using Camel ink on an A4 size paper by the Rolling Finger Technique (RFT) described by Cummins and Midlo  [Figure 8]. Dermatoglyphic analysis was conducted by obtaining fingerprints of both hands of the subjects from the control group, who were age- and sex-matched with the subjects in the study group. Camel Quick ink, rubber roller, A4 size white paper, a pressure pad made of rubber foam, cotton puffs, a scale, a pencil, and a pen were used to take impression of the finger. After inking, the finger was pressed edge down against the paper margin and it was rolled to the opposite edge. The thumb was placed with the ulnar edge down and it was rolled toward the body. The other digits were placed with their radial edges down and they were rolled away from the body. While taking imprints of the palm, special attention was given to mark the zone of flexion creases at the wrist and at the ulnar margin, the flexion creases where the fingers join the palm, and at the central hollow of the palm.  The different quantitative parameters of each hand of the study and control groups were studied. The parameters included were the fingertip ridge patterns and counts. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests.
| Results|| |
Descriptive statistics and correlation test were performed to determine the P-value for each variable. This included the analysis of mean, median, and standard deviation (SD), which are presented in [Table 1]. The demographic data of the fingerprint patterns in the study group and control group are presented in [Table 2].
There was a significant decrease in the frequency of appearance of tented arch, ulnar loop, and radial loop and an increase in the frequency of appearance of the simple whorl pattern in the study group. In both the hands, the parameters of only three fingerprint patterns were markedly less in group A (OSMF/study group) in comparison with group B (normal/control group). There was a decreased count of tented arches in group A (2.06%) in comparison with group B (4.40%), decreased number of ulnar loops in group A (49.38%) in comparison with group B (53.60%), and decreased number of radial loops in group A (4.11%) in relation to group B (12.40%). Further, there was a significant difference in the number of simple whorls between group A (41.15%) and group B (26%). No significant changes were observed in the number of other fingerprint patterns like arches, double loops, and compound whorls. There was no marked difference found in the total count of fingerprints in both the groups. Fisher's exact and Chi-square tests were statistically significant in two types of fingerprint patterns in our study. According to Fisher's exact test, the results relating to radial loop and simple whorl were highly significant with P > 0.0015 and P > 0.0074, respectively. In Chi-square test, statistically highly significant results were obtained with respect to the radial loop (P > 0.0022) and the simple whorl (P > 0.0118). These statistical values are presented in [Table 3]. The results showed that there was a significant decrease of tented arch, ulnar loop, and radial loop and an increase of simple whorl in OSMF subjects in comparison with normal individuals.
|Table 3: Statistical significance in Fisher's exact and Chi-square tests|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Oral submucous fibrosis is a widespread precancerous condition that is especially prevalent in Southeast Asia. An important predisposing factor is chewing areca nut; but not all patients with chronic habits are affected and in some patients, the history does not reveal its prolonged use. It was hypothesized that genetic susceptibility is also responsible for such variations. Oral submucous fibrosis has also been reported in those people who have no habit of areca nut chewing. 
The fingerprints and palm prints are formed during the first 6-7 weeks of the embryonic period and their formation is completed after 10-20 weeks of gestation.  The abnormalities in these are influenced by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors, which appear only when the combined factors exceed a certain level.  Some studies show that increase in ulnar loops on the fingertips is virtually a constant feature of the dermatoglyphics in Down's syndrome. In cases of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, there was an increased frequency of ulnar and radial loops than arches and whorls.  In oral tumors, dermatoglyphic patterns showed an increased frequency of arch pattern on the fingertips.  In Bruxism, increased frequency of whorls and a decreased frequency of ulnar loops were seen, when compared with controls. One study showed 70% whorls and 6.30% loop type of fingerprints in leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. In another study on oral squamous cell carcinoma patients, 70% loops, 32.30% whorls, and 7.0% arch pattern of fingerprints were found.  Dermatoglyphic peculiarities and caries experience of deaf and mute children showed increased frequency of whorl pattern in the caries group and the frequency of loops was more in the caries-free group.  In juvenile periodontitis, a decreased frequency of double loops on all fingers, an increased frequency of radial loops on the right second digits of the patients with rapidly progressing periodontitis, and an increased frequency of concentric whorls and transversal ulnar loops on all fingers of the patients with adult periodontitis were noted.  Studies correlating dermatoglyphics with OSMF are scarce.
| Conclusion|| |
To conclude, the fingerprint pattern in an individual is genetically determined, similar to the tendency of development of OSMF in gutkha chewers. This study might have shown the prevalence of dermatoglyphic patterns in the particular population and a cause and effect relationship could not be drawn. However, a statistically significant correlation was found in relation to the increased frequency of the simple whorls and decrease of ulnar loops in OSMF. Since this study was done on a small sample, more studies must be carried out to compare the findings between OSMF patients and normal individuals. The fingerprints could then be used to screen for detecting the potential to develop OSMF.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]