Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Search Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 920
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 46-49

Assessment of age based on the pulp cavity width of the maxillary central incisors


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Kamineni Institute of Dental Sciences, Narketpally, Telangana, India
2 St. Joseph Dental College and Hospital, Eluru, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Submission22-May-2014
Date of Acceptance13-Jul-2014
Date of Web Publication26-Sep-2014

Correspondence Address:
Uday Ginjupally
S/O Mallikarjuna Rao, H No 5-10, Thallampadu - 507 170, Khammam, Telangana
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-1363.141855

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the age of the patients belonging to the age group of 15 - 55 years, attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, St. Joseph Dental College and Hospital, Eluru, based on the radiographic evaluation of the pulp cavity width of the maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 120 subjects. Intraoral periapical radiographs of the maxillary central incisors were taken for all subjects, using the conventional paralleling angle technique and the pulp cavity width was measured at the cervical and middle third using a digital vernier caliper. The data obtained was subjected to correlation and regression analysis. Results: A negative linear relationship was obtained between the age and pulp cavity width (cervical third, r = -0.459 and middle third, r = -0.704). Cubic regression analysis was done and the regression formulae were obtained. A mean difference of 0.1 years was obtained between the estimated age and real age, indicating the reliability of the derived formula. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the width of the pulp cavity of maxillary central incisors are reliable for estimation of age.

Keywords: Age determination, forensic dentistry, maxillary central incisor, pulp cavity, regression analysis


How to cite this article:
Ginjupally U, Pachigolla R, Sankaran S, Balla S, Pattipati S, Chennoju SK. Assessment of age based on the pulp cavity width of the maxillary central incisors . J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2014;26:46-9

How to cite this URL:
Ginjupally U, Pachigolla R, Sankaran S, Balla S, Pattipati S, Chennoju SK. Assessment of age based on the pulp cavity width of the maxillary central incisors . J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Aug 21];26:46-9. Available from: http://www.jiaomr.in/text.asp?2014/26/1/46/141855


   Introduction Top


Age is an important classifier in most cultural and judicial hierarchies and has assumed increasing importance for the assessment of both criminal culpability and legal/social categorization. It also constitutes an important factor in the identification of an individual in forensic odontology.

Most of age estimation methods described in literature offer an approach in the form of preparation of microscopic sections of teeth. The demerits of the above procedures are that they are irreversible, as the tooth structures may not be available for employing other age estimation methods, and moreover, it may not be acceptable for ethical and religious reasons. [1] In such circumstances, age estimation through radiographs is more suitable as it can easily clarify issues with significant legal and social ramifications for individuals as well as for the community.

Age estimation techniques developed over the years, using radiographs, were based mostly on developmental stages of the tooth, however, when they were applied at large among different age groups, the results was found to be futile. Age-related changes occur in teeth approximately between 10 weeks in utero to old age. [2] As the age advances, the volume of the pulp cavity gradually decreases because of the secondary dentin deposition in the pulp cavity wall. [3] These morphological changes in the pulp cavity serve as one of the most promising predictors for age estimation.

In light of the above factors, the aim of our study was to estimate the age of the patients based on the radiographic evaluation of the width of the pulp cavity of the maxillary central incisors.


   Materials and Methods Top


The study was initiated after the protocol had been approved by the Institutional Committee of Research Ethics. All the subjects were explained about the study and written informed consent was obtained from each subject.

A total of 120 subjects (60 males and 60 females) reporting to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, St. Joseph Dental College and Hospital, Eluru, were recruited in the study. The patients enrolled in the study belonged to the age group of 15-55 years. Patients with full complement of sound maxillary central incisors, with an integrated dentition and good occlusion, were considered for the study.

Patients with history of parafunctional habits, developmental anomalies of the teeth, impacted anterior teeth, trauma from occlusion, fracture, caries, restorations, and systemic diseases like renal diseases, thyroid, and parathyroid diseases were excluded from the study.

The selected sample was subjected to conventional intraoral periapical radiographs of the maxillary central incisors using the paralleling angle technique taken at standard parameters with proper radiation protection measures. The radiographs were processed with a constant strength of developing and fixing solutions, as recommended by the manufacturer. Measurements of the central incisors were recorded from the radiographs using a magnifying glass, a radiographic viewer, and a digital vernier caliper with 0.01 mm calibration. The pulpal cavity width (mesiodistal diameter) was measured at the cervical portion of the tooth and middle third of the root.

The recorded measurements were entered in the proforma specially designed for the study and the final data was subjected to statistical analysis using the SPSS software 17.0 version. The Pearson's correlation test was performed to determine the correlation between the pulp cavity width and age. Regression analysis was carried out to obtain the cubic regression formula for age estimation. The Student's t-test was performed to compare the mean estimated age with the known mean age of the individual.


   Results Top


The mean real age was 36.03 years in males and 36.30 years in females. The mean values of the cervical third pulp cavity width in males and females were 3.67 mm and 3.52 mm, respectively. The mean values of the middle third pulp cavity width in males and females were 1.92 mm and 1.80 mm, respectively.

Student's t-test was performed for comparing the mean values of the pulp cavity width at the cervical and middle third in males and females. No statistical significant difference was observed in the cervical and middle third pulpal widths in males and females [Table 1]. This suggested that no definitive sex difference could be made considering the width of the pulp cavity. Therefore, we had to determine the correlation and cubic regressions for males and females on the whole.
Table 1: Comparison of mean age, cervical and middle third pulp cavity widths in males and females

Click here to view


The Pearson correlation was performed between the width of the cervical and middle third of the pulp cavity and age. A negative linear relationship was obtained between the age and pulp cavity width (cervical third, r = - 0.459 and middle third, r = - 0.704) [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. This was suggestive of the fact that as age increases, the pulp cavity width decreases. A strong correlation was observed with the middle third of the root canal when compared to the cervical third of the pulp cavity.
Figure 1: Correlation of age versus cervical third pulp cavity width

Click here to view
Figure 2: Correlation of age versus middle third pulp cavity width

Click here to view


Cubic regression analysis was performed with age as a dependent factor and the pulp cavity width as an independent factor. In order to obtain an estimated age, the cubic functions were calculated using the formula, y = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d, Where, y is the estimated age and x is the sum of the corresponding pulp widths at the cervical and middle third regions, respectively. The regression formula obtained in our study is - Age = 0.106*x 3 + (−18.274*x) + 117.26.

The mean real age obtained in the study was 36.16 years. The mean estimated age obtained in the study using the regression formula was 36.17 years. Student's t-test revealed no significant difference (P = 0.998) between the estimated age and real age [Table 2].
Table 2: Student's t-test between mean estimated age and mean real age

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Estimation of the human age at time of death is often an important step in the identification of human remains. [3] Although several parts of the body can be used for age estimation, the poor condition of the remains often prevent their use. However, the teeth are usually more resistant to peri- and postmortem tissue altering effects. [4]

In the present study, the maxillary teeth were used, as they are more convenient for age determination than mandibular teeth. Brkic et al. found that the teeth of both jaws were reliable for dental age estimation, but the correlation coefficient was stronger for all types of teeth in the upper jaw. [5] In addition, Fancy et al. stated that the growth layers of maxillary teeth were more regular and distinct than those of mandibular teeth. [6]

Among the maxillary teeth, the central incisors were preferred as they are single rooted teeth, and the pulp cavity width is comparatively greater.

In the previous studies, the ratios between the tooth and pulp measurements, such as, the pulp ⁄ tooth length and the pulp ⁄ tooth width at different levels, were calculated and used in the analyses to reduce the possible variation because of the angulation of the radiographs. [7],[8],[9] In the present study, we have considered the mesiodistal diameters of the pulp cavity (rather than the ratio of pulp/root width) at two levels, as the predictors for age estimation.

It is known that under physiological conditions the volume of the pulp cavity gradually decreases with age, because of the secondary dentin deposition in the pulp cavity wall. This was in agreement with the present study, where we found a negative correlation between age and the pulp cavity width. Similar results were seen with Du et al., Agematsu et al., and Zaher et al. [10],[11],[12]

Singh et al. (2004), evaluated the physiological changes in the teeth with advancing age and found a a mean difference of ± 2.16 years between the actual and calculated ages. [13] Zaher et al. (2011), proved that the estimated ages were very close to the chronological age, with an insignificant difference between them. [12] Similar results were obtained in our study where we obtained a mean difference of 0.1 years between the estimated age and real age, indicating the reliability of the derived formula.

Therefore, it can be concluded that derived regression formulae can be used to estimate the age of an adult population with minimum age difference, using pulp cavity width. This would be a useful alternative or complementary tool for age identification in forensic medicine and archeology.

 
   References Top

1.Salariya AS, Gorea RK. Age estimation by Gustafson's method and its modifications. J Indo Pacific Acad Forensic Odontol 2010;1:12-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Datta P, Sood S. Contemporary practices employed in forensic odontology. Indian J Forensic Odontol 2012;5:6-10.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Singaraju S, Sharada P. Age estimation using pulp / tooth area ratio: A digital image analysis. J Forensic Dent Sci 2009;1:37-41.  Back to cited text no. 3
  Medknow Journal  
4.Jeevan MB, Kale AD, Angadi PV, Hallikerimath S. Age estimation by pulp/tooth area ratio in canines: Cameriere's method assessed in an Indian sample using radiovisiography. Forensic Sci Int 2011;204:209.e1-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Brkic H, Milicevic M, Petrovecki M. Age estimation methods using anthropological parameters on human teeth-(A0736). Forensic Sci Int 2006;162:13-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Fancy SG. Preparation of mammalian teeth for age determination by cementum layers: A review. Wildl Soc Bull 1980;8:242-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Sharma R, Srivastava A. Radiographic evaluation of dental age of adults using Kvaal's method. J Forensic Dent Sci 2010;2:22-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
8.Drusini AG. The coronal pulp cavity index: A forensic tool for age determination in human adults. Cuad Med Forense 2008;14:235-49.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Saxena S. Age estimation of Indian adults from orthopantomographs. Braz Oral Res 2011;25:225-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.Du C, Zhu Y, Hong L. Age-related changes in pulp cavity of incisors as a determinant for forensic age identification. J Forensic Sci 2011;56(Suppl 1):S72-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Agematsu H, Someda H, Hashimoto M, Matsunaga S, Abe S, Kim HJ, et al. Three-dimensional observation of decrease in pulp cavity volume using micro CT: Age-related change. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 2010;51:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Zaher JF, Fawzy IA, Habibi SR, Ali MM. Age estimation from pulp/tooth area ratio in maxillary incisors among Egyptians using dental radiographic images. J Forensic Leg Med 2011;18:62-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Singh A, Gorea RK, Singla U. Age estimation from the physiological changes of teeth. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2004;26:94-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


This article has been cited by
1 Secondary dentine as a sole parameter for age estimation: Comparison and reliability of qualitative and quantitative methods among North Western adult Indians
Jasbir Arora,Indu Talwar,Daisy Sahni,Vidya Rattan
Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2016; 6(2): 170
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

   Abstract Introduction Materials and Me... Results Discussion Article Figures Article Tables
  In this article
 References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1052    
    Printed24    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded284    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]