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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 531-535

Assessment of gingival microvasculature changes in young diabetic patients and its correlation with systemic complications


1 Professor, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sardar Patel Post Graduate Institute of Dental and Medical Sciences Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Professor and Head, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, School of Dental Sciences, Sharda University Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Sardar Patel Post Graduate Institute of Dental and Medical Sciences Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Postgraduate Student, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sardar Patel Post Graduate Institute of Dental and Medical Sciences Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Nitin Agarwal
Professor, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sardar Patel Post Graduate Institute of Dental and Medical Sciences, Chaudhary Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1216

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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. The microvasculature complications of diabetes include retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Gingival microvasculature represents vascular changes elsewhere in the body and hence gingival biopsies may be subjected for microscopic analysis to evaluate the microvasculature changes in diabetic patients. Aim: The present study aims at demonstrating microvasculature changes in gingiva of diabetics and analyze its correlation with systemic complications of diabetes. Materials and methods: A total of 46 outpatients with known diabetes between the age group of 10 and 35 years, visiting SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad and Day Care Centre, Hubli were included in the study- A total of 40 control subjects (20 males and 20 females) were also selected- Gingival biopsies were performed; specimens were stained and visualized under the microscope to assess the microvasculature changes in diabetic patients. Results: Signs of microangiopathy were prominent in diabetics. A total of 16 specimens (34_8%) showed widening and reduplication of basement membrane, 33 specimens (71.7%) had increased staining in basement membrane, nine (19.6%) showed splitting of basement membrane, 28 (60.9%) had swelling of endothelial cells and 5 (10.9%) showed proliferation of endothelial cells with or without lumen obliteration. Out of the 46 diabetic subjects, grade I microangiopathy was seen in 33 subjects, grade II in seven subjects and grade III in six subjects. Retinopathy was present in five subjects, all with uncontrolled diabetes, nephropathy was present in 22 subjects out of which 90.9% were uncontrolled diabetics and neuropathy was seen in 23 subjects out of which 86-9% were uncontrolled diabetics.


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