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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 498-501

Alterations in whole saliva constituents in patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease

1 Professor, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Dr GO Pol Foundation, YMT Dental College and Hospital Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Former Professor and Head, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, KLES's Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Amita Navalkar
Professor, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Gulmohur, 15 Ashoknagar, Cross Road No. 1, Kandivli East, Mumbai-400101, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1209

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Background and objectives: Neglected by dentists and ignored by physicians, saliva is the least appreciated of all body fluids. Yet, this secretion plays a vital role in the integrity of the oral tissues in the selection, ingestion and preparation of food for digestion and besides a whole lot of functions, in one's ability to communicate with one another. Saliva has proven to be a discriminating element in forensic sciences, an effective indicator of acute diseases of salivary glands and also a promising probe for drug monitoring. Because of multiplicity of functions served by saliva along with various physiologic processes involved, salivary secretions have long enjoyed a modest popularity as a research field.' With an increase in investigator interest, it is becoming apparent that many systemic diseases affect salivary gland function and/or composition potentiating its probable role as an indicator of systemic disease? Materials and methods: This study has been undertaken to assess the possible variations in the salivary components in patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease and to ascertain their role in the progression and severity of the disease process. Ninty patients from the OPD were selected for the study after taking an informed consent. These were divided into three groups. Group I consisted of patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease, group II consisted of patients with periodontal disease alone, and, group III the control group. Around 10 ml unstimulated saliva obtained from these subjects was analyzed for salivary sodium, potassium, alpha-amylase, albumin, total proteins and IgA levels. The results were analyzed using the student's t-test. Results: All the salivary components assessed were markedly increased in group I than group II which showed slightly higher values than group Ill. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus acts as a modifying and aggravating factor along with presence of local etiological factors to increase the seventy of periodontal disease. Alterations in salivary composition are seen as a result of changes in the oral mucosa due to diabetes mellitus which in turn affect the severity of periodontal disease.

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